Developmental Psychology Notes Week 1
Developmental Psychology Notes Week 1 PSYC 3120
Popular in Developmental Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
Reviews for Developmental Psychology Notes Week 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/19/16
Chapter 1 1/19/16 Types of Development • Physical Development o How your physical features develop • Cognitive Development o Intellectual abilities • Personality Development o Characteristics that differentiate one person from another (extroversion vs. introversion) • Social Development o Ability to make/keep friends, etc. Developmental Periods • Prenatal Period: conception to birth o Most rapid period of change for the human o One celled organism à fetus à born à newborn is equipped to adapt to the world • Infancy and Toddlerhood: birth to age 3 o Dramatic changes in the body and what the individual can do o Beginnings of language: by 6 months o Relationships with others starts within the first hours of life o Intellectual abilities and difficulties with development start here • Preschool Period: ages 3 to 6 o Body becomes longer o Body fat begins to decrease o Development in physical aspect- motor development o Realize there’s a difference between reality and imaginative world o Begin to have relationships with people other than the family • Middle Childhood: ages 6 to 12 o Learning about the world and figuring out how they stand in ranking compared to other children o Develop self-concept (understand themselves and develop self-esteem) • Adolescence: ages 12 to 20 o Puberty marks the beginning of the phase o Develop adult size body o Reach sexual maturity o Thinking becomes much more complex- can become much more idealistic o Separating from family becomes important- autonomy • Young Adulthood: ages 20 to 40 o Finish education and start working/supporting themselves o Economic independence o Starting their own families • Middle Age: ages 40 to 60 o Time of responsibility (taking care of family- children and older parents, reaching peak of their career, more money) o Physical abilities start to decline o Become much more aware of their mortality • Late Adulthood: age 60 to death o Individual is facing retirement and potentially the loss of status o Grand-parenting Contexts of Development • Normative aged graded influences o Milestones that happen at particular ages o Influenced by biology o Happen regardless of where you live o Example: potty training, puberty (ex: getting your period) • Normative sociocultural influences o Impact that social and cultural factors may play on development o Example: family structure (economically), hunting, religious activity • History graded influences o Due to the unique, historical period that the individual was raised in o Example: Depression, 9/11 • Non-normative influences o Something that happens to someone but is something that is “out of the ordinary”- something that doesn’t happen often o Example: someone wins the lottery, sudden death Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner) • Microsystem o That individual and their immediate surroundings (family, school) o Say child has chronic illness, the family may not be able to go on a family vacation but instead have to spend time at the hospital- child affecting family o The child goes to school, the school affects the child with early experiences • Mesosystem o When different parts of the microsystem interact o Parent-teacher conference • Exosystem o Extended environment for the child- extended family members, television coming into the home, workplace (do the parents make good money), Amber alert • Macrosystem o The society and culture that someone is raised in o Laws, values, customs • Chronosystem o Take the entire system and then look at it across time (sociohistorical conditions and time since life events) Issues in Development • Continuous vs. Discontinuous Development o Continuous: chick à chicken o Discontinuous (stage-like): caterpillar à butterfly o Evidence supports both ways of viewing human development • Critical vs. Sensitive Periods o Critical period: an event is supposed to have a big impact on someone’s development o Sensitive period: example would be language (if exposed to multiple languages when you’re young, you’re more likely to be bi- or tri-lingual when you’re older) • Nature vs. Nurture o Nature: stability o Nurture: change o It’s a combination of both Research Methods in Developmental Psychology • Naturalistic Observation o The researcher is observing what is happening in the environment o Example: researcher studies aggression in children by going to a playground and watch children playing o Problems: no controlled variable, observer effect • Case Study o Look at an individual’s functioning in depth, lots of data on one person o Use an A-B-A-B design o It may apply to that one child but not necessarily to others o Advantage: more control over the environment • Correlational Study o Researchers gather information from groups, but no experiences are changed o Examples: interviews, surveys, etc. o Looking at how different variables relate to each other o Range § +1.0 : perfect positive correlation § 0.0 : no correlation § -1.0 : perfect negative correlation o Coefficient usually not perfect (+0.7 is VERY strong) Chapter 2 1/21/16 Genetic Aspects of Human Development • Gene: a segment of DNA along the length of a chromosome- takes about 100,000 genes to make up one chromosome • Chromosomes: found within every nucleus of every cell of the body; help to store and transmit genetic information o 46 chromosomes, but 23 pairs o 22 pairs of matching chromosomes rd o The 23 pair determines the gender of the embryo • Gametes: sex cells o Female: egg/ovum § Born with all the eggs they will ever have (400,000) § Start to degrade at a pretty rapid rate in the 30’s o Male: sperm § Reproduce new sperm every day o Sperm fertilizes the egg forming the zygote • Zygote: first one celled organism that becomes a human o Has all the genetic information it will inherit from the father and mother • Multiple Births o Monozygotic (MZ) twin: one zygote that breaks into two § Identical twins o Dizygotic (DZ) twin: two zygotes fertilized by two different sperm § Fraternal twins o Women’s chance of having twins increases with age, but fertility drugs also greatly increase the chance Patterns of Genetic Inheritance • Genotype: complex blend of information transmitted from the parents to the child o Genetic makeup o You may carry some of the same genetic information as your sibling, even though it is not expressed § If your sibling is very tall but you’re short, you could be carrying the “tall” genetic information, but it is not part of your phenotype • Phenotype: what is actually expressed on your body • Dominant traits (expressed by phenotype) o Examples: dark hair, normal hair, curly hair, non-red hair, facial dimples, normal hearing, normal vision • Recessive Traits (no effect on phenotype) o There are some exceptions o Examples: blonde hair, pattern baldness, straight hair, red hair, no dimples, deafness (some forms), nearsightedness • We all carry the genetic makeup to have a major problem (e.g., mental retardation) • Homozygous: genes from both parents are alike (PP or pp) o If both parents have dark hair and the child inherits the genetic makeup for dark hair from both parents, they are homozygous for that trait o PKU (Phenylketonuria): inability to neutralize the harmful amino acid phenylalanine § Recessive trait- has to run on both lines of the family tree (child would have to have “pp” not “PP” or “Pp”) • Heterozygous: different genetic traits from each parent (Pp) Pediatric Psychology • Sick Cell Anemia (recessive trait): their red blood cells are very rigid and unable to move through the body to bring oxygen to all parts of their body o Pain management o Intellectual testing o Support o Liaison with the school Prenatal Growth and Change Stages of the Prenatal Period • Germinal Stage (Fertilization to 2 weeks): shortest stage o Blastocyst § Zygote’s cell multiplies and becomes a blastocyst o Implantation § Blastocyst implants into the uterine wall and begins to grow more § Uterus is only about 3 fingers wide (spread out) o Placenta o Umbilical Chord • Embryonic Stage (2 weeks to 8 weeks) o Ectoderm: outer layer that forms the skin, hair, teeth, primitive brain and spinal chord o Endoderm: inner layer that forms the digestive tract and respiratory system o Mesoderm: middle layer that forms muscles, bones, blood o Sense of touch has developed by the end of 8 weeks and the embryo can move (slight movements of arms and legs) • Fetal Stage (8 weeks to birth): rapid increase in size of the fetus o Age of viability § 22 to 24 weeks § The fetus can likely survive (with assistance) if born at this time o Behavioral capacities appear § Nervous system and muscles start to improve § They can coordinate movements (like sucking their thumb) § They can hear sounds (but it’s very muffled- almost like being underwater) o Cat in the Hat research § Researchers had expectant mothers read “Cat in the Hat” to their fetus twice a day in their last 6 weeks of pregnancy and had other mothers read a different story, with a less sing-songy rhythm § After birth, the mothers who had been reading “Cat in the Hat” noticed that their children responded more when they read the book again Threats for an Expectant Mother • Alcohol à fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or fetal alcohol effects (FAE) • Tobacco à premature birth, low birth weight, risk of cleft palette • Caffeine à can stimulate stress hormones, can lead to early birth weight and premature birth • Drugs à babies can be born addicted to the drug • Sushi (the bacteria in uncooked fish) • All of these are teratogens: environmental agent that produces a birth defect o Drugs o Chemicals o Virus o Mother’s diet • Placenta’s job is to keep teratogens from the fetus but it’s not entirely successful o Book says that every fetus was probably exposed to some teratogens
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'