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Intro to Psychology Notes

by: Katelynn Nichols

Intro to Psychology Notes Introduction to Psychology

Katelynn Nichols

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About this Document

These notes cover everything he talks about in class, including his personal stories that appear on the exams.
Dr. King
Class Notes
Psychology, intro, 1001
25 ?




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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelynn Nichols on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Introduction to Psychology at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. King in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Art at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
01/15/16  Correlational studies o Flossing, pets, sex, marriage on oprah live longer  Subjects  Frequency of flossing/week  Age at death  ^^Put into graph o A test of association o Subject variables o No proof of cause and effect  To prove cause and effect do an experimental study o Independent variable: something you manipulate o Dependent variable: something we measure  Independent variable: flossing or not  Dependent variable: longevity  2 groups: experimental group (floss regularly) and control group (don’t floss)  randomized selection  double-blind experiment: researcher, nor participant, know if they’re getting the product or the placebo  random variability  inferential statistics 01/22/16  Nature (genetics) vs. Nurture (environment) Debate o Leelah Alcorn, Kings Mills, given name Joshua Alcorn  Boy felt like girl  Parents were very religious  Parents took away everything & out of school  Sent her to conversion therapy  At 16 committed suicide by stepping in front of a semi  Went viral within 2 days  Cincinnati first city in US to ban conversion therapy o Shyness o John B. Watson (c. 1910)  Father of behaviorism (nurture learning)  Everyone started the same & through the environment you could make them what you want  “Tabula Rasa”: Blank slate o BF Skinner took over for Watson  Worked out laws of learning/conditioning  Skinner box (train the rat) o BEHAVIORISM – NURTURE – LEARNING – ENVIRONMENT o Genetics derives from gene (a piece of DNA)  In chromosomes (23+23=46)  Gene makes a protein  Many animals smaller than humans have more genes  Humans have about 25,000 genes (only 2% of DNA)  Theory of Evolution o Evolution = change o Theory = o 99.9% of animals are gone o Charles Darwin o Heliocentric Theory = theory that the sun is the center of the universe (Copernicus, Galileo) o Theory eventually gets so much support it becomes a fact o Germ theory = diseases are caused by bacteria 01/25/16  Brain organization: Christ Hospital all parts incorporated  Blindsight: superior colliculus  Gyrous: ridge  Sulcus: hill  Post central gyrus: sense of touch  Cerebral cortex (2mm or 1/12in) 01/27/16  Corpus Callosum o 200,000,000 fibers  Gray matter (cell bodies) & white matter (myelinated axon) Subcortical Nuclei (Gray matter)  Nucleus: collection of cell bodies  Cortex is a thin sheet of nuclei  Fibers through stem & pom o Fishnet appearance: reticular system o Wakes up brain o Reticular Activating System (RAS): your wakeup call, controls consciousness Form a ring around thalamus Limbus (border): A limbic system Controls motivation (things you want; hunger, sex, drugs, sleep) & emotion (fear, anger, disgust, etc.)  Thalamus: Greek for inner chamber o the older brain o plays role in consciousness o if stimulated by electrical current it’s possible to wake a person from comatose state but if the current is discontinued they will go back into coma; can’t keep current going because brain will become used to the current  Hypothalamus o In front of thalamus o “all traffic funnels through it” o more power per mm than any other part of brain  Amygdala  1966, Texas, guy (Charles Whittman) climbed in tower in campus & targeting people walking campus  diary progressed to get worse & worse  tumor on amydala o produces anger & fear o powerful center for emotion o amygdala: Greek for almond (that’s what it looks like)  Hippocampus o Looks like a seahorse o Hippo means Horse; Campus means Sea  1950s, HM, severe epilepsy (electrical storms in brain), seizures coming from hippocampi  1957 removed 2/3 hippocampi on both sides  should’ve just done 1 side  he couldn’t learn anything new  previous memory was fine but couldn’t form any new ones o key role in memory  Cingulate gyrus (gyrus: ridges in cortex) o wraps around corpus callosum like a belt 01/29/16  Hypothalmus controls: o Pituitary Gland o Master gland o Endocrine System  Adrenal hormones  Gonadal hormones o autonomic (autonomous: self directed) nervous system  Parasympathetic NS  System of housekeeping  Digestion of food  Homeostasis (basic housekeeping): maintaining balance  Sympathetic NS  Fight or Flight system (adrenaline)  All or nothing  Nervous system o Central o Peripheral  Somatic (voluntary movements & sensory)  Autonomic (involuntary muscles & glands)  Pituitary  Parathyroid  Thyroid  Thymus  Pancreas: insulin  Adrenals: create adrenaline and stress hormones  Gonads 02/05/16  Spherical vesicles full of (20K molecules of) neurotransmitters in the terminal  Vesicles get pulled to the edge next to the membrane  Soap bubbles, 2 molecules thick, membranes like but tougher, when they touch they form one big bubble. Self organizing  Molecules diffuse out of the synaptic cleft or gap  Synaptic cleft/gap: the space between the cells  Receptor (proteins & channels): receive neurotransmitter molecules  If sodium goes into cell it sends out positive signal, gives little electrical charge  If + charge goes into cell voltage goes up (depolarization)  If – charge goes into cell voltage goes down (hyperpolarization) o If they occur at the same time they cancel each other out  Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP) on dendrite o Causes next cell to “fire” by potentials though dendrites to the interior of cell o summation  Potential: voltage change  Membrane of nerve cell #1 called Pre Synaptic Membrane  Membrane of nerve cell #2 called Post Synaptic Membrane  False neurotransmitter: nicotine 02/08/16  Principle of Coding o Color o Movement o Contour (edges) o Distance (depth perception) o Location  Visual images are invention of the brain (coding goes through eyes to occipital where the brain uses the code to create an image)  Hallucinations (book): sensations not related to the real world o Mom o Going blind (degeneration) o Hawaiian shirts in church o Perception of the world is construction. We don’t really see the world, we invent it.  Picture on the back of the eye is upside down  Zonules of zinn  Iris is a ring of muscle to change shape of lens  Nerve fibers in optic nerve  Nerve fiber layer is the first thing light hits in the back of the eye, then goes through all the cell bodies, then go to photoreceptors in back of retina (cones & rods), make action potential, then to the ganglion cells (big & little that send action potentials)  Brain takes fuzzy image to make it clean (image enhancement software like photoshop)  Pit on the retina is called fovea  Cones in the center, rods on the outer sides  Fovea is cone vision (color vision)  Fovea on back of eye. Only spot of eye with really clear vision/detail.  Eagle  LGN (lateral geniculate nucleus) part of the thalamus (relay station for all senses)  2 neurons to get to cortex 02/10/16  Rods o b&w o super sensitive o work in dark o takes about 20 minutes to “work” fully o away from fovea  Cones o Color vision o Not sensitive o In fovea o High acuity (details) o High res vision  Electromagnetic Spectrum o (700nm; longer) ROYGBV (400nm; shorter) o curve tells the kind of color it lights o red cone in 600 perspectives o blue cone in 400-500 o green cone in middle o respond to different chemicals o compares to speaking different languages o line specific, just like eyes/brain  phones to different gov’t people  red went to Russia  each had a specific purpose 02/22/16  Motivation-Emotion o Moti: things that move you o Motivation  Hunger*  Local theory of hunger (comes from empty stomach)j o Blowing a balloon in the stomach o Stomachs taken out still get hungry  Central Theory o Central nervous system (brain) o First central theory: “It’s a glandular problem” (hormones) o Tumor pressing down/out on pituitary gland (people who never get full)  Master endocrine gland o Tumor affecting above pituitary too (hypothalamus) o Hypothalamus or Pituitary? o Stereotaxic surgery (rat)  Lesion technique  Lower wire down  Turn on electric current  “cooks” part of brain  Insulation on wire but tip is bare  EX: EGGS  That part of brain stops working so can assume what it controls by how behavior changes  Not the pituitary, when lesion in ventromedial- hypothalamus (VMH) “cooked” they were constantly hungry like the people  Overeat: Hyperphagia (leads to obesity)  Lesions in lateral hypothalamus (LH): stopped eating completely (Aphagia) o LH is “hunger center” o VMH is a “satiety center” o Blood glucose (BG) lowers when hungry (should lead to increased activity in LH) o Gluco-static theory  Negative Feedback o Thermostatic Control  System variable: Temperature  Detector: Thermometer  Effector: Furnace  Setpoint: Temperature set o Glucostatic Control  System variable: Glucose levels  Detector: Hypothalamus  Effector: Eating  Setpoint: Setpoint for BG  Thirst  Sex  Success o Emotion  Anger (kids shoes)  Disgust (dog poop)  Fear (house on fire) 02/24/16  Natural experiment 50 yrs ago o **Identical twins: monozygotic (MZ) – one egg o Fraternal twins: dizygotic (DZ) – like normal siblings, 2 separate eggs o Couple months after birth goes to get circumcised o Blizzard that day o Electrocotery (sparks cut the skin & automatically seal blood vessels) malfunctioned o Gives a big shock & burn penetrated tissue (penis turning into giant scab & came off) o Nature vs. Nurture  Both boys have same genetics  Wont have same environment starting b/c missing body part o Johns Hopkins  John Money: neuropsychologist dealt w/ similar situations  Suggests raising baby as a girl  Bruce  Brenda  Dr. Money said everything was going perfectly fine  As Nature Made Him by Colapinto interviewed Brenda @ 35 yrs old  She never felt normal  Didn’t get along with girls or boys  At 10 Money gave her hormones to turn into adult female  At 13 she got surgery to have a vagina but Brenda didn’t want it  At 14/15 Brenda was depressed  1 parent each kid took on a drive to tell the whole truth  Brenda felt so relieved  Went back to being a boy  Nature is more powerful than Money thought  Testosterone changes brain & Bruce’s brain already exposed to hormone  What happens to brain during developing 9months (primary sex characteristics) o Girls (XX)  Female pattern  Continues for 9months & born a baby girl  More baby girls survive than boys  More boys are conceived o Boys (XY)  Female pattern  Y chromosome has a gene called SRY  Produces androgen  Androgen: male hormone (most common is testosterone)  Changes to a male pattern & born a baby boy  Testosterone vs. Estrogen(s)  Progesterone(s) & Estrogen(s) in women  If testosterone is introduced (from adrenal glands) in developing female fetus o Causes congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) o Causes same changes as boy & produces boy (sort of) o Genetically a girl, looks like a boy o Once reaches adolescence starts developing secondary sex characteristics (boobs, etc.)  If androgen can’t get through and affect fetus o Androgenic Insensitivity Syndrome (group of symptoms): boy doesn’t react to androgen o Looks like a girl but genetically a boy  More common that that babies are in between (can’t tell if it’s a girl or boy)  Phalloplasty: 02/26/16  Emotion: feelings (sensations)  James Lance (1886) Theory o Exciting perception goes in thalamus (first stop) o Then to hypothalamus o Nerve cells send signals down into body for emergency o Sensations back from body  Fight or flight: Sympathetic Nervous System (autonomic) o Emergency type functions o Eyes dilate o Heart rate increases dramatically o Breathing gets more rapid o Liver releases sugar (glucose increases) o Blood is shunted to muscles o Releases adrenaline  Order: o See something scary o Run o Become scared (experience the feelings of fear)  Canon-Bard Theory (19*9) o Exciting perception goes to thalamus o Then to hypothalamus o Triggers sensations o Sensations back from body o Signals go to cortex (situation is understood): result of emotional behavior 03/02/16  Classical conditioning: his dog barking at cars swat with newspaper when car gets close  John B. Watson: father of American behaviorism  Little Albert generalized the white rabbits to white, fuzzy things  Taste aversion learning (Prepared learning: adaptive for survival)  Contiguity and Contingency  Classical Conditioning (Padlovian or Respondant): o Environment (includes people) elicits response o Stimulus comes before response o Response is reflexive o Response is low in complexity o No new behavior (only new associations) o Any stimulus can become associated and elicit a response  Getting dog to pick up newspaper, given treats when she acts with paper  ^^ Successive approximations  She was making voluntary actions of sniffing and biting paper 03/04/16  Thorndike, “How do animals partake in more complicated behavior?” o Puzzle box o Rat starts with hundreds of behaviors then does only six o Law of Effect ^^: animals do things based on the effect it has  B.F. Skinner o Most famous living psychologist o Behaviorism o Skinner Box  Small box to control rat’s environment 1. Get him to the end of box with the bar 2. Sniff the bar 3. Push the bar with nose 4. Push the bar with paw  Operant Conditioning (Skinner) o Animal is operating on the environment o Instrumental Conditioning o Skinnerian Conditioning  Animal emits response, he does it when he wants  Response first, stimulus (reward) second  Response is voluntary (somatic nervous system)  Response can be complex  New behaviors  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (by Skinner)  Behavior = Skinner  Reward is more powerful than punishment  Reinforcement: any stimulus that increases the chance of a behavior  Punishment: any stimulus that decreases the chance of a behavior occurring again  Positive: to present a stimulus  Negative: to remove a stimulus  4 Combinations 1. Positive Reinforcement: giving a reward to increase the behavior (giving ice cream to clean room) 2. Negative Reinforcement: to reward by removing something unpleasant to increase the behavior (not grounded anymore to clean room; amnesty) 3. Positive Punishment: punishment by presenting unpleasant stimulus (spanking) 4. Negative Punishment: punishment by taking away something pleasant (not stopping for food in order to stop fighting; take away something they like)  Continuous reinforcement: gets a reward every time the bar is pressed  Extinction: is quick  Partial Reinforcement: used to not getting the reward so they’ll keep going; tremendous resistance to extinction (people at casinos; aka gambling) 03/07/16  Episodic memory: remembering details (every episode) of your life o Autobiographic memory  Semantic memory: knowledge  Motor memory: memory of movements  Sensory Memory: very short o Visual memory: icon o Hearing memory: echo  Hangs around for a few seconds  Short-term memory (functional) o Active loop in brain o Sequence rehearsal o Small capacity (7 +/- 2) o Primacy effect: tendency to remember the first thing out of a group  Proactive interference: kept the same number that interfered with the rest o Recency Effect: tendency to remember the last thing out a list  Retroactive interference: interference is destroying the past numbers  Long-term memory (structural) o Permanent change in the brain o relative o unlimited capacity 03/09/16  Chunking  Method of Loci (Memory Palace)  Engram  Consolidation: making short term memory long term (making it solid)  Karl Lashley  Rats in a maze o In search of the engram o Mass action (size matters) o Equipotentiality  Working Memory o Frontal Lobe: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex o Phonological loop o Visuospatial sketchpad o Episodic buffer o Executive function  Amnesia o Retrograde (trauma)  ECT: Electroconvulsive Therapy o Andrograde  Short term  consolildation  long term o pass the mall, get knocked out, passing mall never got consolidated that’s why it’s forgotten 03/11/16  H.M.: Henry Molarison  Bilateral Temporal Lobectomy (ectomy=take out) o Anterograde amnesia: unable to store new events in memory o can remember old memories but not post-surgery o normal short term memory o Normal long term memory for the past o Normal working memory o No new long term memories (failure of consolidation)  Hippocampus (2) in temporal lobes  Episodic Memory: life events o HM couldn’t form new episodic memories  Semantic Memory: knowledge about the world  Facial Memory  Mirror drawing: the star  Forming new memories is normal but it’s completely unconscious  Explicit (declarative) memory o Complex o Conscious o Multimedallate o names  Implicit (procedural) o Simple o Durable (won’t forget) o Faces o Gut feeling


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