Chapter 1 Reading Notes & Anatomy Review
Chapter 1 Reading Notes & Anatomy Review BIOL 104-01
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Hershberger on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 104-01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Nelson Kraus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Physiology in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
BIOL 104-01 Chapter 1: pgs 1-10; 18-23 By: Madison Hershberger Anatomy: the study of structure and form Physiology: the study of the function of the body parts Scientific Method: refers to a rigorous process by which scientists: * Examine natural events through observation *Develop a hypothesis *Experiment and test the hypothesis through the collection of data *Determine if the data supports the hypothesis, if it is rejected, or needs to be modified Microscopic anatomy: examines structures that cannot be seen by the unaided eye and has two main subdivisions which are cytology (study of body cells and their internal structure) and histology (the study of tissues) Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy): investigates the structure and relationships of body parts that are viable to the unaided eye, and has five subdivisions which include *systemic anatomy (studies the anatomy of each function body system) *regional anatomy (examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body as a complete unit) *surface anatomy (focuses on both superficial anatomic markings and the internal body structures that relate to the skin covering them *comparative anatomy (examines similarities and the differences in the anatomy of different species *embryology (concerned with developmental changes occurring from conception to birth) Examples of Subdivisions of Physiology: *Cardiovascular Physiology (examines the function of the heart, blood vessels, and blood) *Neurophysiology (examines how nerve impulses travel throughout the nervous system) *Respiratory Physiology (which studies how respiratory gases are transferred by gas exchange between lungs and blood vessels) *Reproductive Physiology (explores how the regulation of reproductive hormones can drive the reproductive cycle and influence sex cell production and maturation) Integrating Anatomy and Physiology *both are intertwined; one must have some understanding of anatomic form to study physiologic function of a structure *Ex: You cannot fully understand how the small intestine propels food and digests or absorbs nutrients unless you know about the structure of the small intestine wall Characteristics that describe living things: *Organization: all organisms exhibit a complex structure and order *Metabolism: the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur within the body and consists of: -anabolism ( in which small molecules are joined to form larger molecules) -catabolism (in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules) *Growth and Development: organisms assimilate materials from their environment and often exhibit increased size and specialization as related to form and function. As the body grows and develops, structures such as the brain become more complex and sophisticated *Responsiveness: the ability to sense and react to stimuli (changes in external/internal environment) *Regulation: ability to adjust of direct internal bodily fuction in the face of environmental changes *Reproduction: all organisms produce new cells for growth, maintenance, and repair Levels of Complexity: *From simplest to complex: chemical level – cellular level – tissue level – organ level – organ system level – organism level *chemical level: simplest level and contains atoms and molecules *cellular level: consists of cells, which are the smallest living structures and serve as the basic units of structures and function in organisms *tissue level: consists of tissues, which are groups of similar cells that perform commone Functions (4 types are: epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous) *organ level: composed of organs, which contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific and complex functions *organ system level: contains related organs that work together to coordinate activities and achieve a common function *organism level: all body systems function interdependently in an organism, which is a living Being Homeostasis: *refers to the ability of an organism to maintain consistent internal environment, or “steady state,” in response to changing internal or external conditions *stimulus -> receptor -> control center -> effector -> homeostasis restored *Stimulus: a change in the variable, such as a change in light, temp, chemicals, or mm *Receptor: detects changes in a variable, which is a substance or process that is regulated *Control Center: structure that interprets input from the receptor and initiates changes through the effector *Effector: structure that brings about the change to alter the stimulus *Negative Feedback Loop: homeostasis where the variable is maintained within a normal level, or what is called its ‘set point;’ it fluctuates around its set point and doesn’t remain constant *Positive Feedback Loop: stimulus here is reinforced to continue in the same direction until a climatic event occurs; following the climatic event, the body again returns to homeostasis Characteristics about Homeostasis: *they are dynamic *the control center is generally the nervous system or the endocrine system *there are three components: receptor, control center, and effector *they are typically regulated through negative feedback to maintain a normal value or set point *it is when these systems fail that a homeostatic imbalance or disease results, ultimately threatening an individual’s survival. * Position Terms and Planes of the Body Flash Cards ~ Organ Systems of the Body Flash Cards ^ Cavities of the Body Flash Cards Anterior/Ventral Toward the front of the body Ex: The sternum is anterior to the spine * Posterior/Dorsal Toward the back of the body * Ex: The spine posterior to the sternum A part above another part Superior Ex: The head is superior to the neck * Inferior A part below another part Ex: The neck is inferior to the head * Toward the midline of the body Medial Ex: The spine is medial to the scapula * Lateral Away from the midline of the body Ex: The scapula is lateral to the spine * Towards the point of attachment to the Proximal body; used only when referring to a * part of a limb Ex: The humerus is proximal to the ulna Distal Away from the point of attachment to the body; used only when referring to a * part of a limb Ex: The ulna is distal to the humerus Internal Toward the inside of the body Ex: The stomach is internal to the skin * External ToEx: The skin is external to the stomach * Horizontal plane that divides the body Transverse into upper and lower portions; also * called cross-section. Plane that runs down through the body, Sagittal dividing the body into left and right * portions. Plane that runs perpendicular to the Coronal (frontal) sagittal plane and divides the body into * anterior and posterior (front and back) portions. Skeletal Bones and connective tissues ~ Striated skeletal muscle Muscular ~ Integumentary Skin, nails, hair, glands in skin, nerve endings, and receptors in skin ~ Nervous organs spinal cord, ganglia, nerves, sensory ~ Heart, blood vessels, blood Circulatory ~ Lymphatic Tonsils, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and lymph fluid ~ Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large Digestive intestine (all in gastrointestinal tract); ~ accessory (associated) organs include salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder Respiratory Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs ~ Urinary Kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra ~ Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals Endocrine glands, endocrine portion of pancreas, ovaries, and testes (all secrete hormones into blood) ~ Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, and Reproductive vulva in females; testes, seminal vesicles, ~ penis, urethra, prostate, and bulbourethral glands in males Bones of the cranial portion of the skull and Dorsal Cavity vertebral column, toward the dorsal ^ (posterior) side of the body. Cranial Cavity Contains the brain ^ Spinal Cavity of the brain spinal cord, which is an extension ^ Anterior surface of torso; divided by Ventral Cavity diaphragm muscle into upper thoracic cavity ^ and abdominopelvic cavity. Thoracic Cavity The chest; contains trachea, bronchi, lungs, esophagus, heart and great blood vessels, ^ thymus gland, lymph nodes, and nerves. Contains pleural and pericardial cavities Pleural Cavity Surrounds each lung ^ Contains the heart/the pleural cavity Pericardial Cavity surrounds both the pleural and pericardial ^ cavities. Imaginary line that runs across hipbones Abdominopelvic Cavity divides the body into the abdominal and pelvic ^ cavities. Contains stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, Abdominal Cavity spleen, kidneys, and S/L intestines, ovaries (in ^ female); the peritoneal cavity (peritoneum) surrounds the abdominal organs Pelvic Cavity Contains colon, rectum, urinary bladder, uterus (in females) ^ Integumentary System and joints Review By: Madison Hershberger Epithelial Tissue Simple Squamous Epithelium • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Simple Squamous Function: Diffusion Epithelium Filtration Some Secretion NOT protection Location: Lungs Kidneys (Glomeruli) Lining of Heart Lining of Blood and Lymphatic Vessels Simple Cuboidal Epithelium • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Simple Cuboidal Epithelium Funciton: Secretion and Absorbtion Location: Kidney Tubules Ducts Secretory Glands Surface of Ovary Secretion of Hormones Simple Columnar Epithelium • (For non-ciliated) • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Simple Columnar Epithelium Function: Absorption and Secretion Production of Mucus Some Enzymes Location: Non-Ciliated: Digestive Tract, Gall Blader Ducts to Glands Simple Columnar Epithelium • (For Ciliated) • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Simple Columnar Epithelium Function: Absorption and Secretion Production of Mucus Some Enzymes Location: Ciliated: Used for movement of particles Bronchi Uterine Tubes Some Portions of Uterus Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Function: Production and Propulsion of Mucus Location: Ciliated: Upper Respiratory Tract Non-ciliated: Sperm Ducts Stratified Squamous Epithelium • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Stratified Squamous Epithelium Function: Protection Location: Skin Mouth Esophagaus Vagina Transitional Epithelium • Can you name… *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Transitional Epithelium Function: Stretches to Store Fluids Location: Ureters Connective Tissue Adipose Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Adipose Tissue Loose, Proper Function: Nutrient Storage Protection and Support Location: In the hypodermis Around kidneys, eyeballs, and breasts Can be stored everywhere Reticular Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Reticular Connective Tissue Loose, Proper Function: Soft reticular fibers support multiple cell types including white blood cells and macrophages Location: The Spleen Lymph Nodes Bone Marrow Binds Adipose Areolar Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Areolar Connective AreolarTissuective Tissue Loose, Proper Wrap and cushion organs Fight bacteria and Wrinflamationion organs Fight bacteria and inflammation Location: Under Epitheliauid Mucous Membranes Location: PUnder Epithelia Mucous Membranes Thin Fibers = Elastic Packages Organs Thick Fibers = Collagen Dense Regular Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Dense Regular Connective Tissue Dense, Propper Function: Strongly attatching bone to bone, muscle to bone, Muscle to muscle Resists Pulling Forces Location: Tendons Ligaments Aponeuroses Dense Irregular Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Dense Irregular Connective Tissue Dense, Proper Function: Resists pulling in multiple directions Resists Pulling Forces Location: Joint capsules Dermis of the skin Elastic Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Elastic Connective Tissue Dense, Propper Function: Allows for passive recoil of arteries Location: Walls of Arteries Bronchiole Tubes Blood Connective Tissue • Can you name if it is… *Loose/Dense/Proper/Other? *It’s function? *Where it is found in the body? Blood Connective Tissue Other Function: Transport of gasses, nutrients, and waste Location: Inside blood vessels Red and white cells in a matrix (plasma) Appendages of Skin Skin • Made of multiple tissues working together • Epidermis- epithelial tissue • Dermis- connective tissues • Largest organ in body Cells of the Epidermis • Keratinocyte: most abundant epidermal cell- produce keratin • Melanocytes- produce melanin; found in deepest layer of epidermis • Dendritic cells- ingest foreign substances; activate immune system Epidermis layers mnemonic (Deep) • Before - Basale • Signing - Spinosum • Get - Granulosum • Legal - Lucidum • Counsel - Corneum (Superficial) Tactile Corpuscle Lamellar Corpuscle
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