Outline for GEOS 218 at UA
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Geos 218 Geological Disasters amp Society Sept 18 2008 Today s Topics Earthquake and tsunami case studies Headline News Hurricane Ike sem mb r i39s 2608 httpcoastal er L159 5 govhurricanesikephoto comparisonsboivar htm Outline Tsunamis vs windcaused waves Tsunami case studies 7 1964 Alaska 7 1960 Chile 7 Pacific Northwest USA Earthquake case studies 7 2008 China 7 1999 Turkey What to Do Before During an Atter an Earthquake sunami vs WindCaused W ves Wind waves Tsunami httpmeyoutu be comwatchv0 B5c39 PZ FQ4 quot9 PHY httplwwwyoutu becomlwatchvngnUanSBpQampfeaturerelated Pacitic tsunami travel times Observations 165 1r e 1P provlge tlme or W m I n gs Ts U nami heights are to pre Ictable 10 deadliest natural disasters since 1970 400000 250000 280000 140000 89000 70000 60000 50000 50000 43000 25000 25000 1970 1976 2004 1991 2005 2008 1970 1999 1990 2003 1988 1976 ocation Bangladesh EQ China EQampTsunami Indian Ocean Hurricane Bangladesh Pakistan China Peru Venezuela Iran Iran Armenia Iran otticial number but closer to 500000 unofficially Alaska 27 Magnitude subduction earthquake killed 1 i 39 sparsely populated Alaskan coast Tsunami hit Vancouver Island then California Series of waves with fifth one largest Which wave in series will be largest is not predictable Prince William Sound Earthquake 1 ran YEN WAKES m E worm raw 4992 I mummwes 2 ALASKA m4 mu 1 Ausu tumor 4 KAIICHAVKAJWLMNW 5 acumen woe Ma 5 ALASKA m5 mu 7 ASSAM mm W 95 9 CHILEWZLNMIS 1964 Prince William Sound Ear ake Alaska upymmo m IkawMlll columnquot In Pumlmlun Mullmar munmm a ham I I I I i I I I I 158 156 154A 152 150 14839 14539 144 142O e43 Pacilic plate 0 5390 Ion Isukm n so so 90km 1960 Chile Earthquake Chile 22 May 1960 Magniiude 95 subduciion eveni was mosi poweriul earthquake ever recorded creaied large isunami Three waves each successively larger hii Chilean coasi killing 1000 Chilea ns Adequaie warning was given in Hawaii bui 61 people killed Tsunami coniinued io Japan killing 185 people Could coniinue To be measured in Pacific Ocean for a week Some residents gathered on a hillside as the tirst large wave poured into town photos A C Almost 3 hours later crowds remained on this hillside as another wave arrived 1960 Chilean Tsunami Waves shown in the photos were recorded by a tide gauge in the Onagawa harbor Japan Midnight 6 am Tide gauge disabled39 Waves noticed by fireman WATER LEVEL lN FEET WATER LEVEL IN METERS Mfgng i155 l JEJilziEE h gt 9t 3 l ilm 2 H 4 SWDGP lg 04 pemqwruo Hymn51r 511 0 gamma 0 uvmaoawwsuaullm owmvwaoumuns w g quot sumw M mam 3mm 13 m ma 5 mm mm mm m M W M um um umaezL Nahum 3 uoelgqg 096l LUOJJl DMDH olgH 4o wounsi samwom g n L 331m k meuu i 095 An Osman Wm mun mm mm hawam r Cascade Subduction Zone Crustal 39 earthquakes 90MB 1572 t u i p l Subducflun zane Xx eannquskas earthquakes mun 19900 Suume Affected area Maxi slze Recurrence subduction Zone WVWA on CA M 9 5007600 y Deep Juan is Fuca plate WVWA OR M 7 3050 yr Crustal faults WA OR CA M 7 Hundreds a yr Paci c Northwest the Upcoming Eart qu ke mmma m mum Mm in mum we mewm mumv iao 26 t Cascadia subduction zone 7 mall plates subducting uncler North L W5 Calumbia America No major earthquakes in last 200 years in the Pacific Northwest 7 why iHas subduction stopped A 3 year 39No because volcanism still Juan ue Fuca occurs 939 iAre plates subducting so smoothly that earthquakes clon39t occur I 3 39 Pro ba bly not since yeslri azigmas subducting lithosphere is so 393 young Pacific Northwest 7 TsunamI deposIts are found along the entIre length of the coast IndIcatIng a large earthquake In the past The most recent event was In January of t s thch produced a tsunamI recorded In Japan Sam A Paci ic Nor t39hwes t39 Ear t39hquake Tsunami An earthquake in January of 1700 produced a Tsunami recorded MAW in Japan SIIcA tnzzhr Es Run up I s m 7me T summ Egeuy SM B 5 I 5 5x 10 J r Wyng u an a m 3 03 Earthquake em 2 Moment 139 22 soon Nm 5391ij Earthquake 3 E Magmtuds a M E W 053 91 244 t mInII 015 7g Edy 9d m w NH 17 w Amancan ml l7 7 pdslgredlE A L Tsunamis in the Atlantic Ward and Day 2001 Cumbra Visia Volcano Potential collapse and tsunami at La Palma Canaw Islands 10 Earthuquake Case Histories May 12 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Mw79 55 km WNW at Chengdu Sichuan China 70000 deaths 374i 7i iniured i84 7 missing and 5 million homeless infrastructure damaged landslides caused 34 barrier lakes 2473 dams were damaged 53000 km of roads and 47000 water pipelines wee damages hffpCCetltthake v phpummmy May 12 2008 Sichuan Earthquake Mw79 Occurred trom movement on the Longmenshan tault on the margin ot the Sichuan Basin 100 million people live in the basin Thrust tault I7 ffp www fecfom39cscafecheduZOOEMWCIzhaEQXdzuani7fm 11 mmnrca malice Am mmmmamnz ca Pm lt Gmo Nooo HM Sichuon Earthquake Immediate Attermoth rescue operations i999 Izmit Earthquake M74 28000 killed Over 100000 iniured Halta million homeless 3933050 billion in damages 13 Ai mija cf 11 1999 2 e 2 E SO E E U R A S I A M 76 17 0 L1999 1 r 2 7 North Anat quot x kquot or v 1 13 Fault CNRS PGP Tectonic Dept Black Sea Xi7 ANATOLIA 0 Northridge Earthquake lvlag 67 Thrust fault Sixty people were killed more than 7000 injured 20000 homeless anal more than 40000 buildings damaged in Los Angeles Ventura Orange and San Bernardino Counties Preliminary estimates of damage are between 13 and 20 billion US dollars httpWww earthq uakecountry infovideonorthridge htm 14 S u rid ce offsets 7 BlackSEa n l7 August 1999 I Why do scien ris rs from US care Comparison of the North Anatolian and San Andreas Faults 4 939 I 992 Earthquake Senuonre 39 Faufl Slip Hale 2434 Himyr Francisco 4 19170 W Fault 50 Rare 2034mmyICLITORNIA Slmrlar slip rare age length and straighrness 15 Earthquake hisfory of fhe NAF Vurlh Analulim munquot rulrhur 3nxlmxrv dle11 unan u u quotIVA um hn12Uw Aglannul y A p 11ml 9871050 A D quotI sum1 Where do we expecf fhe next big one fo occur 1592 13491971 1556 16 LI WVEH 4 le 3916 PUD aqLuaLu Wm Ho Lpo i 39L L b H03 uauaEquLu m 4 AWE pub H a 4 pa A ppmq HDqt M geqoangog uo mops 0G 0 qu sa muup u uogllgq H53 ssalaLUOLI aq gm aldoad aLlHo Z palmng aq gm LIO LU I DH PBIIPI ac PIquotOD 0000 l A s 0 a muug xg SeHHDsnDD papadxg HUDQ QBJDI 9 J01 APDSJ Inqumsl 5 What to Do Before an Earthquake 4 Have Disaster Supplies on Hand Flashlight portable batteryoperated radio amp batteries First aid kit emergency tood water amp can opener Essential medicines cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes 5 Develop an Emergency Communication Plan In case tamin members are separated trom one another during an earthquake develop a plan tor reuniting atter the disaster Ask an outotstate relative or triend to serve as the tamin contact Atter a disaster it s otten easier to call long distance Make sure everyone in the tamin knows the name address and phone number ot the contact person From FEMA W tto Do During an Earthquake Stay as sate as possible during an earthquake Minimize your movements to a tew steps to a nearby sate place It indoors stay indoors DROP to the ground take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece ot turniture and HOLD ON on until the shaking stops Cover your tace and head with your arms Stay away trom glass windows outside doors and walls and anything that could tall such as lighting tixtures or turniture Stay in bed it you are there when the earthquake strikes Hold on and protect your head with a pillow Use a load bearing doorway tor shelter it it is in close proximity Stay inside until shaking stops and it is sate to go outside Electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or tire alarms may turn on DO NOT use the elevators 18 What to Do During an Earthquake It outdoors stay there Move away trom buildings streetlights and utility wires Once in the open stay there until the shaking stops It in a moving vehicle Stop as quickly as satety permits and stay in the vehicle Avoid stopping near or under buildings trees overpasses and utility wires It trapped under debris Do not light a match move about or kick up dust Cover your mouth with a handkerchiet or clothing Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you Use a whistle it one is available Shout only as a last resort Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts ot dust W at to Do Alter an Earthquake Expect attershocks They can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures Listen to a batteryoperated radio or television Listen tor the latest emergency intormation Use the telephone only tor emergency calls Stay away trom damaged areas Return home only when authorities say it is sate Be aware ot possible tsunamis it you live in coastal areas When local authorities issue a tsunami warning assume that a series ot dangerous waves is on the way Stay away trom the beach Help injured or trapped persons Call tor help Clean up spilled medicines bleaches gasoline or other tlammable liquids immediately Leave the area it you smell gas or tumes trom other chemicals From FEMA 19 What to Do an Earthquake Inspect utilities Check tor gas leaks It you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise open a window and quickly leave the building Turn oft the gas at the outside main valve Look tor electrical system damage It you see sparks or broken or trayed wires or it you smell hot insulation turn ott the electricity at the main tuse box or circuit breaker Check tor sewage and water lines damage It you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumber It water pipes are damaged contact the water company and avoid using water trom the tap You can obtain sate water by melting ice cubes From FEMA 20
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