Microbiology-Week 1 Notes
Microbiology-Week 1 Notes BMS 212
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 212 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Leonard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
BMS 212: Week 1 Notes Chapter 1 1. Identify contributions of Leeuwenhoek (1.1) and Linnaeus. a. Leeuwenhoek: cloth merchant that strove to examine quality of cloth and discovered microbes b. Linnaeus developed taxonomic system of classification of plants and animals 2. Describe the contributions of Redi, Spallanzani, Needham, and Pasteur as relate to the controversy surrounding the spontaneous generation of life. a. Reid: three flasks containing meat, one open to the air, one sealed, one covered with cloth. Maggots were on the one open to air but magnets were present on the top of the cloth, proving flies lead to maggots not meat b. Needham: (argued for abiogenesis) boiled beef gravy and infusions of plant material then sealed tops. Vials appeared clear of life, but after a few days the vials were cloudy and revealed microbes c. Spallanzani: Needham failed to boil/cover properly; boiling and leaving open to air resulted in microbes growing, boiling and sealing for air resulted in no growth. Microorganisms can contaminate from air, spontaneous generation cannot occur d. Pasteur: "Father of microbiology"; experiment with s-curve open to air from vial that was boiled, the dust from air settles in bend and resulted in indefinitely sterile infusion 3. Describe the significance of Pasteur’s fermentation experiments and how they are still being used. a. What caused wine to spoil and become acidic? Concluded yeast only grows from other yeast, yeast can grow with/without oxygen. Bacteria ferment to acids, yeast ferments to alcohol. Solution: boil enough to kill all bacteria, inoculate with yeast. Contribution: pasteurization is now the same process used for reducing microbial numbers 4. Describe Koch’s postulates, which are used to prove the etiology of disease. a. Isolate pathogen from sick creature b. Grow pathogen in laboratory and obtain pure culture c. Inoculate a healthy creature from the culture, should result in same disease d. Resonate the pathogen from the second creature i. His experiments led him to his postulates that are the steps to take in order to prove the cause of any infectious disease 5. Describe the contribution of Gram to the field of microbiology. a. Gram provided a series of dyes that led to microbes turning purple (Gram positive) and others pink (Gram negative), known as Gram stain 6. Identify the contributions of three pioneers of hygiene that helped drastically reduce infectious disease: Semmelweis, Lister, and Nightingale. a. Semmelweis: advocated hand washing (with chlorinated lime water) and showed pathogens can be spread off surfaces; dropped deaths of purple fever by 17% b. Lister: created idea of antisepsis, founded antisepsis surgery; sprayed wounds, incisions, and dressings with carbolic acid(phenol) and reduced deaths by two- thirds c. Nightingale: brought cleanliness and antisepsis to nursing practice; crucial in Crimean War, supported public health policies, founded school of nurses 7. Describe the contributions of Snow to epidemiology and Jenner’s creation of the first vaccine. Snow: traced outbreak of cholera in London by studying propagation; set a. standards for hygiene from his studies, founded branches of infection control & epidemiology in microbiology (occurrence, distribution, and spread of human disease) b. Jenner: used cowpox to prevent smallpox and resulted in vaccines, named after virus of cowpox; vaccinations provide long-lasting protection immunization, created field of immunology 8. Describe the contributions of Ehrlich to chemotherapy (the use of drugs to treat disease.) a. Ehrlich: searched for “magic bullet” to destroy pathogen but non-toxic to humans (treated syphilis with arsenic-based drug), founded chemotherapy Chapter 6 1. Define “pure culture” and why it is important in the microbiology laboratory. a. pure culture: composed of single species of cells; aseptic techniques prevent contamination, common isolation techniques: streak plates & pour plates 2. Recognize characteristics and examples of five different mediums discussed in class: defined media, complex media, selective media, differential media, and anaerobic media. a. Defined: exact chemical composition known b. Complex: chemical composition unknown, uses nutrients from partial digestion of yeast, beef, soy, or proteins c. Selective: favor growth of certain organism while inhibiting growth of others d. Differential: visible changes in media/colonies allow differentiation of organisms e. Anaerobic: oxygen is removed (reducing media, sodium thioglycollate) Chapter 4 1. Explain how the following two factors influence resolving power: wavelength of light and numerical aperture. a. The wavelength of light illuminating the specimen effects the resolving power by having greatest resolution when the wavelength is short; near-ultraviolet offers best resolution b. Numerical aperture describes how well the lens gathers light to be fixed at a specific point at a given distance from the lens; the higher the numerical aperture, the better resolving power 2. Understand the importance of oil and an oil immersion lens to improve resolution in light microscopy. a. The use of an oil immersion lens and oil allows for greater resolution because the lens is in contact with the immersion oil so the rays of light from the light source do not refract/bend the way they would when in contact with air, allowing more light to enter the lens, thus better resolution 3. Discuss ways to improve contrast in bright field microscopy. a. The use of stain allows for higher contrast between specimens on the plate; certain stains give rise to varying colors, the light passes through object and into lens; microscopes with compound lens give even higher contrast 4. Compare and contrast bright-field microscopy, dark-field microscopy, and phase microscopy. a. In bright-field microscopy stains are used to give better contrast of specimens; both bright- and dark-field microscopy improve with brighter light, but dark- microscopy does not require staining allowing us to view live specimens. Phase microscopy is used for live organisms and creates contrast by light rays that are in or out of phase; in phase rays give brighter images while out of phase rays produce darker images. 5. Compare and contrast fluorescence and confocal microscopes. a. Fluorescence microscopes use UV light and dyes that illuminate, the shorter wavelength gives us better resolution while the fluorescence allows more contrast. Confocal microscopes uses the same kind of dyes, but the light source is UV lasers which illuminate the dyes in a single plane which a computer uses to generate 3D images 6. Contrast transmission electron microscopes (TEM) with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) in terms of how they work, the image they produce, and the advantages of each (4.11). a. TEM has approx. .3nm resolution; specimen is dehydrated, enclosed in plastic, sliced very thinly and placed on a copper grid b. SEM has lower magnification/resolution because it creates a 3D image of the surface; prepared by coating in heavy metal (such as gold) and gives very vivid images of specimen 7. Describe the contributions of Carolus Linnaeus to taxonomy. a. Linnaeus wanted to catalog organisms; proposed two kingdoms and classified organisms based on common characteristics they shared and subdivided organisms into categories of species, based on their ability to interbreed. Cells and strains (variance of a species) that shared at least 70% of DNA sequence are defined as a bacterial species. Use of binomial nomenclature that included the genesis (noun) followed by the species (adjective). 8. Define binomial nomenclature. (4.20) a. Binomial nomenclature named microorganisms by using a noun and adjective; the genesis is usually first followed by the species and used latin names 9. List the three domains proposed by Carl Woese. (4.22) Eukarya 1. 2. Bacteria 3.Archaea Chapter 11 1. Identify six basic shapes of prokaryotic cells. a. Coccus: round sphere b. Coccobacillus: rounded but slightly elongated c. Bacillus: elongated, straight d. Vibrio: long, bent/curved e. Spirillum: spiral shaped with flagella at each end (allows movement) f. Spirochetes: spiral shaped with enclosed flagella in membrane g. Pleomorphic: oddly shaped that varies 2. Describe some commonly seen cell arrangements of prokaryotic cells. a. The arrangement of cells (how cells cluster) result from the number of planes in which they divide, and the separation of daughter cells. i. Diplococci and chains result from division of 1 plane; diplococci are side by side cells while chains result from daughter cells staying together ii. Tetrads result from 2 planes; form single layer square iii.Sarcina result from 3 planes and form a cube iv. Clusters result from many planes at odd angles creating a random arrangement
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