EASC 1114 - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes
EASC 1114 - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes 1114
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Aleshire on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1114 at University of Central Missouri taught by Dr. Werner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Foreign Language at University of Central Missouri.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Introduction to the Atmosphere 01/19/2016 ▯ What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather: Day-to-day atmosphere conditions Climate: Average weather conditions that are derived from weather. They can be more predictable than weather. ▯ The Atmosphere What is the atmosphere? o The thin layer of gases and particles that surround the Earth. o Quite thin o Atmosphere weather action contained in four miles diameter on Earth. ▯ Measure the Quantity Gases o Measure using density. (M/V) o Percent by mass (mixing ratio) o Atmospheric Centimeter (atm-cm) o Measuring how thick (O-zone) .34 cm of O-zone is in the atmosphere o Dobson Unit = 1/100 of atm-cm ▯ ▯ Atmospheric Composition Present atmosphere o Permanent Gases N2 – 78.08% O2 – 20.95% Ar - .93% o Variable Gases Water Vapor (H2Og) 0.25-4% Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 0.04% Percent varies seasonally because of foliage (trees) O-zone (O3) 0.01% Residence Time o The average time a molecule stays in the atmosphere o Is determined by how rapidly something stays before is leaves. Variable Gases (More Detail) o Water vapor is gaseous water You don’t see it; it is invisible to the naked eye Has a residence time of 10 days o CO2 280 ppm before Industrial Revolution (IR) 400 ppm today o O3 270 Dobson Units at equator 450 Dobson Unites at poles Other components o Particulates (aerosols) Sources Fires Volcanoes Sandstorms Humans ▯ ▯ Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere Density and Pressure o Gases are compressible o Pressure is measured by a barometer o Millibars (mb); Mercury (Hg) Structure based on Temperature o Troposphere – The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, marked by considerable turbulence and, in general, a decrease in temperature with increasing height. o Tropopause – The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. o Stratosphere (Ozone layer) – The zone of the atmosphere above the troposphere characterized at first by isothermal conditions and then a gradual temperature increase. o Stratospause – The boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere. o Mesosphere o Mesospause – The boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere o Thermosphere – The zone of atmosphere beyond the mesosphere in which there is a rapid rise in temperature with height. ▯ Energy What is Energy? o Simply having the capacity for doing work, i.e. making an object move Categories o Kinetic Energy – Energy of motion “Energy associated with an object by virtue of its motion” o Potential Energy – Stored energy “Capability to do work” Heat and Temperature o Heat – Energy transfer / Total energy o Temperature – Average kinetic energy of molecules “Measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a substance” ▯ Units Measure Temperature - Fahrenheit / Celsius / Kelvin o Find Kelvin by Degree Celsius + 273 Measure Energy – Joule (J) Measure Power – Joules/Second o 1 Watt = 1 J/S Flux – Watt/M2 ▯ Laws of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another or moved from one place to another. Net transfer of heat is always from higher to lower temperatures ▯ Modes of Heat Transfer Conduction o Transfer of heat via molecular contact o Only option within a solid, opaque medium Convection/Advection o Movement/Transfer of heat in a fluid medium via molecular movement. (Fluid meaning that molecules can move) o Advection is the horizontal movement of molecules Radiation o Transfer of heat via electromagnetic waves o Doesn’t require any medium ▯
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