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EASC 1114 - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes

by: Haley Aleshire

EASC 1114 - Chapter 1 and 2 Notes 1114

Marketplace > University of Central Missouri > Foreign Language > 1114 > EASC 1114 Chapter 1 and 2 Notes
Haley Aleshire
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Chapter 1 and Chapter 2 notes that were given January 11, 13, and 15. Chapter 3 notes will be up tomorrow. A study guide will be made and posted this weekend for our exam that is coming up on Febru...
Weather and Climate
Dr. Werner
Class Notes
Science, Earth Science, University of Central Missouri




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Aleshire on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1114 at University of Central Missouri taught by Dr. Werner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Weather and Climate in Foreign Language at University of Central Missouri.

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Date Created: 01/19/16
Introduction to the Atmosphere 01/19/2016 ▯ What is the difference between weather and climate?  Weather: Day-to-day atmosphere conditions  Climate: Average weather conditions that are derived from weather. They can be more predictable than weather. ▯ The Atmosphere  What is the atmosphere? o The thin layer of gases and particles that surround the Earth. o Quite thin o Atmosphere weather action contained in four miles diameter on Earth. ▯ Measure the Quantity  Gases o Measure using density. (M/V) o Percent by mass (mixing ratio) o Atmospheric Centimeter (atm-cm) o Measuring how thick (O-zone)  .34 cm of O-zone is in the atmosphere o Dobson Unit = 1/100 of atm-cm ▯ ▯ Atmospheric Composition  Present atmosphere o Permanent Gases  N2 – 78.08%  O2 – 20.95%  Ar - .93% o Variable Gases  Water Vapor (H2Og) 0.25-4%  Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 0.04%  Percent varies seasonally because of foliage (trees)  O-zone (O3) 0.01%  Residence Time o The average time a molecule stays in the atmosphere o Is determined by how rapidly something stays before is leaves.  Variable Gases (More Detail) o Water vapor is gaseous water  You don’t see it; it is invisible to the naked eye  Has a residence time of 10 days o CO2  280 ppm before Industrial Revolution (IR)  400 ppm today o O3  270 Dobson Units at equator  450 Dobson Unites at poles  Other components o Particulates (aerosols)  Sources  Fires  Volcanoes  Sandstorms  Humans ▯ ▯ Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere  Density and Pressure o Gases are compressible o Pressure is measured by a barometer o Millibars (mb); Mercury (Hg)  Structure based on Temperature o Troposphere – The lowermost layer of the atmosphere, marked by considerable turbulence and, in general, a decrease in temperature with increasing height. o Tropopause – The boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. o Stratosphere (Ozone layer) – The zone of the atmosphere above the troposphere characterized at first by isothermal conditions and then a gradual temperature increase. o Stratospause – The boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere. o Mesosphere o Mesospause – The boundary between the mesosphere and the thermosphere o Thermosphere – The zone of atmosphere beyond the mesosphere in which there is a rapid rise in temperature with height. ▯ Energy  What is Energy? o Simply having the capacity for doing work, i.e. making an object move  Categories o Kinetic Energy – Energy of motion  “Energy associated with an object by virtue of its motion” o Potential Energy – Stored energy  “Capability to do work”  Heat and Temperature o Heat – Energy transfer / Total energy o Temperature – Average kinetic energy of molecules  “Measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in a substance” ▯ Units  Measure Temperature - Fahrenheit / Celsius / Kelvin o Find Kelvin by Degree Celsius + 273  Measure Energy – Joule (J)  Measure Power – Joules/Second o 1 Watt = 1 J/S  Flux – Watt/M2 ▯ Laws of Thermodynamics  Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another or moved from one place to another.  Net transfer of heat is always from higher to lower temperatures ▯ Modes of Heat Transfer  Conduction o Transfer of heat via molecular contact o Only option within a solid, opaque medium  Convection/Advection o Movement/Transfer of heat in a fluid medium via molecular movement. (Fluid meaning that molecules can move) o Advection is the horizontal movement of molecules  Radiation o Transfer of heat via electromagnetic waves o Doesn’t require any medium ▯


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