Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
Popular in Course
Popular in Department
This 42 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
Reviews for Class Note for ECOL 182R with Professor Huxman at UA
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/15
Posted on web 22708 at 530 pm Evolution of Photoautotrophy 3001 182 2282008 3 Summary from last time We talked about Universal Photosynthetic Structure Similar form in prokaryotes and eukaryotes Structure 39antenna reaction center39 design chlorophyll based light harvesting pigments Chlorophylls can absorb visible light and 39delocalize39 energy across their molecular structure heterodimeric protein core of reaction center Two distinct yet related proteins Chlorophyll Stroma molecules LIFE THE SCIENCE OF EIDLaGV Sevmlh Ednian Figure 51 The Molecular structure a chlnmphyll 2004 S nauErAssmrams 71 and w H Freeman 5 co An renna Reac rion Cen rer Design One excep rion from This general design Halobac rer39ia Eur39yar39chaeo ra from extreme saline environments Con rain r39e rinal pr39o rein sys rem as a complex molecular s rr39uc rur39e BiosynTheTic paThway 5aminolevulinic acid l pr oTochlor ophyllidae i chlorophle c chlorophyllide a chloroph Ila y chlorophle b bacTer39ia chlorophylls Dimeric protein complex reaction center Converts that energy to a usable form Types 1 ironsulfur clusters 2 pheophytin and quinones Light harvesting structures Photosystem I reduces NADP to NADPH H Photosystem II uses light energy to oxidize water molecules producing electrons protons and OZ STEROMA ow H Yr 39 39 2 l 7639 39 Plastocyanin 39 if gradien Oxidation W 1 of water LUIIMEN high Hquot Evidence for The endosymbiotic origin of eukaryote photosynthesis Spirochaeles Chlamydiales Cyanobacteria Chloroplasts Mitochondria Proteobacteria ARCHAEA PLANTAE Remaining EUKARYA BACTERIA Regulation of Photosynthesis where does the ATP and NADPH following light harvesting The Calvin cycle Turns out there is plenty of light energy most of the time what regulates photosynthetic rate is car39boxylation The CalvinBenson Cycle Ribulose 15bisphospho re cor39boxylose oxygenose rubisco co rolyzes The fixo rion of 02 info a 5cor39bon compound r39ibulose 15 bisphospho re RuBP An infermediate 6cor39bon compound forms which is uns roble and breaks down To form Two 3cor39bon molecules of 3P6 see fig 814 The CalvinBenson Cycle Consis rs of Three or39 four processes FixaTion of CO2 To RuBP catalyzed by r39ubisco mp ATP NAUPH PEA fri ose P PCR EYE LE J Pi RuBP hexose P C02 Reducing To G3P uses ATP and NADPH STARCH RegeneraTion Ru BP 7 uses ATP r erp DP ATP NADPH I b C ADP I I I 1 ATP g m g A a 39 2 p A PER f osap h mse CYCLE G p RUBP hexosehp C02 mp UDPG STARCH u rf ppi C02 CALVIN BENSON CYCLE 6 C02 0 9 6 0 6RuBP O 6 Carbon 6 12 6 RUMP Regeneration Reduction Of RuBP and sugar production 1212 O 12 NADP 10 GBP 12 G3P 12131 2 GBP K Other carbori compounds LIFE THE SCIENCE OF mommyv Seventh Edition Figure 513 The CalvinBennquot Cycle 13 2am SmausrAssumaies inc and w H Freeman 5 Cu Making CarbohydraTe from 02 Pr39oducTs of photosynthesis ar39e cr39iTicaI for39 energy on Ear39Th Some of The carbon incor39por39aTes inTo amino acids lipids and nucleic acids Some of The sTor39ed energy is consumed by heTer39oTr39ophs wher39e glycolysis and r39espir39aTion release The sTor39ed ener39gy Con rrols over phoTosynThesis Spa rial heir39ar39chy is impor ran r for39 unders randing pho rosyn rhe ric regulation 11a Thylakoids L1ght v Thylakoid a Arrangement of cells in a C3 leaf Upper epidermis quot 39Vem Spongy mesophy cell Lower epidermis CO exxernal air Sunlight LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Samm Edilian Figum a The Ingre ianls for Phaiosynmasis 2004 STnanarAssacrahs Imam w H Freeman 5 c Factors shaping constraints over photosynthetic rates a series of heirarchical controls with multiple tradeoffs hinge P Relative allocation of Tradeoff between Leaf lifespan returns nitrogen to carboxylation exchanges of water and on C amp N investment versus light harvesting carbon Cowan 1977 reproductive timing and Field and Mooney 1986 Cowan and Farqhuar output Bloom 1986 Farqhuar et al 1980 1977 Bazzaz 1996 Other issues Phoforespir a rion Rubisco is a carboxylase adding COZ To RuBP IT can also be an oxygenase adding 02 To RuBP Phofor39espir39a39l39ion and Its Consequences Phoforespira39rion RuBP 02 gt phosphoglycola re 3P6 Glycola re diffuses in ro organelles called peroxisomes Peroxisomes conver39f glycola re To glycine Glycine diffuses in ro mi rochondr39ia and is conver39fed To glycer39a re and 602 Figure 8 5 Organelles of Photoresplratlon LIFE THE SCIENCE OF EIOLDGV Seventh Edilion Figure 315 Organslles n1 Phntolespira on Ln 2m Smausv Assnmauas W and w H Freeman E Cu Phofor39espir39o39l39ion and Its Consequences Pho ror39eSpir39a rion uses The ATP and NADPH produced in ligh r r39eac rions CO2 is released r39o rher39 Than fixed Rubisco ac rs as an oxygenase if COZ is very low and 02 is high 02 becomes high when s romo ro close pr39even ring plon r wo rer39 loss Sunlight u mg mg arming mm m aw m Wm pmmmm Am a K mm m z Upper epidermis Vein Spongy mesophyll cell Lower epidermis Big Questions What have been the important constraints and or principles that have shaped the evolution of plants Diversi cation Form and function Important particularities on evolution and speciation in plants RA Fisher 1958 Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection In order for there to be evolution there must be genetic variation Maj or ways genetic variation is introduced into populations 1 Mutation UV random error 2 Genetic recombination meiosis including crossingover 3 Immigration into population But plants do two additional tricks that enhance genetic variation 4 Polyploidy 5 Hybridization Multicellularity and plant evolution Multicellularity evolved more than once Multicellularity has several interesting advantages When is an organism multicellular When neighboring cells adhere interact and physiologically communicate Contact is achieved in four ways 1 T ighl junctions proteins in membranes that bond neighboring cells 2 Desmosomes intracellular laments that adjoin cells often creating a space for material movement 3 Gap junctions pores surrounded by transmembrane proteins direct material movement between cells 4 Plasmodesmata Multicellular plant Single living protoplast of adjoining cells Cell membranes which line plasmodesmata are continuous from one cell to the next Water and small molecules may pass with relative ease essentially through the whole plant Material ow may be modified by altering number and location of plasmodesmata What is a plant Plants are photosynthetic eukaryotes including algae A more derived group of plants is called the embryophytes Plants appear monophyletic forming a single branch of the evolutionary tree so says your book gt Brown plantsquot Stramenopiles J Ancestral u organism amp gt Red plants J amp ChlorophytesKm Charophytes gtquotGreen plantsquot P1 t Embryophytes an ae LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIDLaGY Savant Edition Flglna 291 What Is a Plum r 2004 Smauar Assocrznes me am w H Freeman amp Cm Diversity of Embrophytes Embryophytes fall out into 10 phyla Three phyla liverworts hornworts and mosses derived in that order lack tracheids and are collectively referred to as the nontracheophytes Seven include members possessing welldeveloped vascular systems called the tracheophytes Table 291 in your book lists the groups and their de ning characteristics good source for important knowledge hint Unique characteristics of plants Alternation of generations is a universal feature of the life cycles of plants Life cycle includes both multicellular diploid and multicellular haploid individuals Gametes are produced by mitosis while meiosis produces spores that develop into multicellular haploid individuals The multicellular diploid plant is called the Sporophyte The sporangia on the sporophyte produce haploid unicellular spores by meiosis The multicellular haploid plant formed by mitosis of a spore is called the gametophyte The gametophyte produces haploid gametes The fusion of two gametes results in the formation of a diploid cell the zygote and the cycle repeats Multicellular gametophyte Spore Gametes I HAPLOID n DIPLOID 2n Multicellular spoi oph y te Figure 292 in the book Sporophyte generation Gametophyte generation Charophytes a group of green algae appear to be the closest living relative of Embryophytes These organisms now occupy the margins of ponds or marshes meaning that the jump to a terrestrial environment was in close proximity a Chara sp stonewort b Coleoclzaete Sp LIFE THE SCIENCE OF BIOLOGY Savenlh Edition Figula 25311 Closasi Relatives 01 Land Flam 92001 Sinauer Assnmales inn and w H Freeman 5 Co The Conquest of the Land Embryophytes invaded the terrestrial environment approximately 400 500 mya lnvading the land is more like invading the air rather than soil Some adaptations to life on land Cuticlea waxy covering that prevents drying Gametangiaenclosure for gametes to prevent drying Embryosprotected young sporophytes Pigmentsprotection against mutagenic UV radiation Spore wall thickeningprevent drying and resist decay Mychorhizzae mutualistic association with a fungus to promotes nutrient uptake from the soil Stomata controllable pore in tissue that regulate water loss and CO2 uptake Aerenchyma invaginations in tissue that create moist internal surface area for controlled gas exchange
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'