New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BSC 215 Week of 1/18

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Week of 1/18 BSC 215

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture notes for 1/19 and 1/21
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Anatomy & Physiology 1

Popular in Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for BSC 215 Week of 1/18


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/19/16
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 2 - Seven Characteristics of Life (The textbook is outdated in reference to this concept.) Homeostasis • • Organization • Metabolism - ability to break down compounds to get energy and ability to build compounds to form structures Growth • • Adaptation - DNA mutates and, in turn, different proteins are produced that may be advantageous. • Response to stimuli Reproduction • *In addition, all living things have: cell membranes, hereditary material (double- • stranded DNA). - Major Structural Levels of Organization in the Human Body • Chemical level - Atoms are organized into chemicals and these chemicals will display unique properties. • Cellular level • Tissue level - a combination of different cells that come together to perform a common function • Organ level - a combination of different tissues that come together to perform a common function • Organ system level - a combination of different organs that come together to perform a common function • Organismal level - a combination of different organ systems that come together to perform a common function - Homeostasis - the creation and maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment to facilitate the numerous psychological processes that cells undergo 1 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 • ex. constant pH, stable temperature • Internal environment is determined by physiological variables (things that can vary). - ex. of physiological variables: temperature, pH, [blood glucose]*, osmotic balance, [blood oxygen/carbon dioxide], vitamin D levels - Regulated variables - your body has the ability to regulate these • receptors —> control center —> effector (carries out the corrective action) - Non-Regulated variables - your body cannot do anything to regulate these • ex. Vitamin D (you must be in the presence of sunlight to make this; your body does not have much control) - Regulation • Stimulus (ex. body temperature falls below normal range) • Receptor - detects change (ex. certain brain cells detect temperature change) • Control center (ex. brain interprets and acts on body temperature signals) • Effector (ex. nerve cells stimulate skeletal muscle cells to start shivering) - Feedback Loops The concept of feedback: the variable itself is what’s causing changes in the • variable - Ex. A drop in temperature signals for a change in temperature (increase in temperature) • Negative Feedback - return regulated variable to within a normal range of values - The change in a variable in one direction causes a change in the variable in the opposite direction. - Ex. body temperature • Identify the regulated variable: temperature • Positive Feedback - increase/reinforce initial stimulus on regulated variable - The change in a variable in one direction causes a continued change in the variable in the same direction. - Ex. blood clotting 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 • Stimulus: injury to blood vessel • Receptor: receptors on platelets detect injury to blood vessel • Control center: activated platelets release chemicals that attract and activate more platelets • Effector: platelets seal blood vessel - The endpoint is reached (when the blood vessel is sealed) and platelet activity decreases. • Regulated variable: platelet number - Positive feedback loops do not continue forever. - How are structure and function related? • Form follows function at all levels of organization. - Ex. lung tissue: Lung tissue is thin, allowing gasses to cross rapidly. If tissue was thick, gasses would have a difficult time crossing through the tissue. - Gradients • Temperature gradients (energy gradients) - Heat dissipates from its source. • Concentration gradients - Substances diffuse from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. • Pressure gradients - Molecules diffuse to lower pressure areas. - Cell Communication • Cell to cell communication is required to coordinate physiology and maintain homeostasis. • Two necessary components: ability to generate a signal and ability to receive that signal • Chemical signaling - Endocrine - long distance signaling • usually involves bloodstream - Paracrine - communication between cells within a tissue (short distance signaling) 3 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - Autocrine - cell signals to itself - Juxtacrine - the two communicating cells are attached • Electrical signaling - involves the flow of ions across membranes * [ ] indicates concentration 4 Thursday, January 21, 2016 BSC 215 Lecture 3 - Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass • States of Matter - Solid - defined shape and volume - Liquid - undefined shape, defined volume - Gas - undefined shape and volume • Matter is made up of atoms. - Atoms • (Usually) consist of: - Protons • weigh 1 AMU (atomic mass units) • charge: + - Neutrons • weigh 1 AMU • no charge - Electrons • no significant weight • charge: - • Atomic number = the number of protons • Atomic mass = number of protons + number of neutrons • Atoms are usually electrically neutral (number of protons = number of electrons). • The electrons in the valence shell are important because those are the electrons involved in a chemical reaction. - Element - simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties 1 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • An element is any substance made up of only one kind of atom. • Protons have the same properties in any atom. Electrons have the same properties in any atom. Neutrons have the same properties in any atom. • 4 most abundant elements found in living things: oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen • The most prevalent kind of bond in the body is a covalent bond. • Ion - a charged atom (different number of protons and electrons) - Isotopes - atoms (of the same element) that differ only in the number of neutrons (and, consequently, in mass) • Atomic weight - weighted average mass over all known isotopes of an element • Isotopes chemically behave the same way. • Radioisotopes (unstable isotopes) decay over time. - This process is called radiation. - The process of radioactive decay involves the emission of particles from the nucleus of an atom. • Low penetrance - Lower energy, do not travel far - Alpha particle (ɑ) - 2 protons and 2 neutrons • results in change in atomic number and atomic mass - Beta particle (β) - electron • High penetrance - Gamma ray (????) - high energy photon - All radioisotopes can produce dangerous ions and free radicals. - Two ways to combine matter: • Mixtures - different atoms combined retain their unique chemical properties and can be physically separated - Suspensions - solids suspended in a liquid 2 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • You can see the solid matter in a suspension; they will eventually settle down to the bottom due to gravity. • Ex. blood - Colloids - solids suspended in a liquid • Difference from suspension: the solids are smaller and will never settle • Ex. milk - Solutions - one thing is dissolved in another • The dissolved molecules will never settle. • Ex. glucose and water • Solute - what is dissolved Solvent - what the solute is dissolved in • • Chemical bonds - different atoms combined have new chemical properties and the resulting molecules can only separated chemically - Ionic bonds - transfer of electrons between atoms and the atoms are attracted to each other (because of their opposite charges) - Covalent bonds - formed when 2 atoms share electrons • Non-polar covalent bonds - equal sharing of electrons • Polar covalent bonds - unequal sharing of electrons - Hydrogen bonds - attractions between polar molecules (The positive side of one atom attracts the negative side of another.) - Van der Waals forces - brief attractions between temporarily polar molecules (depending on electron activity/location) - The valence shell determines chemical reactivity. • Some atoms are chemically reactive and some are not. • Octet rule - An atom is most stable when its valence shell contains 8 electrons - Duet rule - for smaller atoms, they are most stable when they have 2 valence electrons • Ex. helium is stable when it has 2 valence electrons. 3 Thursday, January 21, 2016 • Ex. Hydrogen only has one valence electron and wants two valence electrons, so it is more likely to interact with another atom to become stable. • Ex. Carbon has 4 valence electrons so it can share electrons/form bonds with 4 other atoms (to reach a total of 8 valence electrons). - Ions - charged particles • Unequal number of protons and electrons • Ionization - Atoms with < 4 valence electrons tend to give electrons up. • They form cations (positively charged ions). - Atoms with > 3 and < 8 valence electrons tend to gain electrons. • They form anions (negatively charged ions). - Electrolytes - substances that ionize in water (can conduct electricity) 4


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.