Chapter 6: Cartilage and Bone, Chapter 9: Articulations
Chapter 6: Cartilage and Bone, Chapter 9: Articulations ANTR 350
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CHAPTER 6 CARTILAGE AND BONE skeleton is supporting framework for the soft tissues of the body continually rebuilds and remodels itself reservoirs for calcium and phosphorus skeletal system includes bones cartilage ligaments and other connective tissues that stabilize or connect the bones Cartilage semirigid connective tissue that is weaker than bone but more exible and resilient contains a population of cells in a matrix of protein bers embedded within gellike ground substance 0 chondroblasts produce the matrix of cartilage and once they become encased within this matrix they producesecrete the cells are called chondrocytes and occupy small spaces called lacunae these are mature cartilage cells 0 mature cartilage is avascular not penetrated by blood vessels so nutrients diffuse through matrix 0 three types 0 hyaHne o elastic o brocartilage Functions of Cartilage 3 Major 0 supporting soft tissues 0 providing a gliding surface at articulations where two bones meet 0 model for the formation of most bones in the body in embryonic stage cartilage is later replaced by bone tissue Growth Patterns of Cartilage Cartilage grows in 2 ways 0 interstitial growth growth from within the cartilage itself o appositional growth growth along the cartilage s periphery In embryotic development both interstitial and appositional cartilage growth occur simultaneously 0 interstitial growth declines rapidly as cartilage matures and becomes semirigid and the matrix can no longer expand 0 Then only appositional growth occurs at the edges of the cartilage c When the cartilage is fully mature growth stops and only occurs slightly after injury but is limited because of the lack of blood vessels m 0 primary component of bone is bone connective tissue 0 quotosseous connective tissuequot 0 calci cation or mineralization is the process of matrix of bone connective tissue becoming sturdy and rigid due to deposition of minerals in the matrix Functions of Bone Support and Protection 0 framework for body 0 protect delicate tissues and organs 0 Movement 0 groups of bones serve as attachment sites for skeletal muscle soft tissues organs 0 levers for when muscles contract 0 Hemopoiesis 0 process of blood cell production 0 produced in red bone marrow located in some spongy bone contains stem cells that form all elements in blood children red bone marrow is in spongy bone and the medullary cavity of most bones adults red bone marrow degenerates and turns into fatty tissue called yellow bone marrow and red marrow only remains in selected portions of axial skeleton Storage of Mineral and Energy Reserves 0 O 0 90 of body s calcium and phosphorus reserves are stored in and released by bones calcium is needed for muscle contraction blood clotting nerve impulse transmission phosphate needed for ATP utilization When body needs calcium or phosphate bone connective tissue is broken down and minerals are released to bloodstream Potential energy is form of lipids is stored in yellow marrow shaft of long bones Classi cation and Anatomv of Bones shape and size depend on function Four classes of bones Long bones 0 0 0 0 0 greater length than width elongated cylindrical shaft diaphysis most common bone shape in upper and lower limb arm palm gingers foot toes vary in size Short bones 0 999 nearly equal length and width external surface covered by compact bone interior surface composed of spongy bone carpals tarsals sesamoid bones tiny seedshaped bones along tendons of some muscles patella is largest sesamoid bone Flat bones 0 at thin surfaces 0 composed of roughly parallel surfaces of compact bone with layer of internal spongy bone 0 provide extensive surfaces for muscle attachment and protect underlying soft tissues 0 form roof of skull scapulae sternum ribs Irregular bones 0 elaborate complex shapes don t t into other categories 0 vertebrae ossa coxae hip bones ethmoid and sphenoid bones of skull General Structure and Gross Anatomy of Long Bones principal gross feature of long bone is its shaft called the diaphysis which is elongated usually cylindrical and provides leverage and major weight support of long bone epiphysis ends of long bone look like knobs 0 enlarged to strengthen the joint and provided max surface area for bone articulations and tendonligament attachment 0 outer layer of compact bone inner of spongy 0 proximal epiphysis is end of bone closest to body trunk 0 distal epiphysis is end farthest from trunk metaphysis region in mature bone between diaphysis and epiphysis 0 in growing bone the epiphyseal growth plate is here thin layers of hyaline cartilage that provide for continuous lengthwise growth of diaphysis adults remnant of epiphyseal plate is thin layer of compact bone called the epiphyseal line articular cartilage thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphysis at a joint surface 0 reduces friction and absorbs shock in movable joints medullary cavity marrow cavity hollow cylindrical space within diaphysis 0 contains yellow bone marrow o endosteum incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of bone like the medullary cavity 0 contains osteoprogenitor cells osteoblasts and osteoclasts for bone growth repair remodeling o periosteum tough sheath that covers outer surface of bone except for areas warticular cartilage 0 made of dense irregular connective tissue 0 consists of an outer brous layer and inner cellular layer 0 anchored to bone by strong collagen bers called perforating bers 0 function protects bone from surrounding structures anchors blood vessels and nerves to bone provides stem cells osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblasts for bone width growth and fracture repair M 4 types of cells in bone connective tissue 0 osteoprogenitor cells stem cells derives from mesenchyme 0 divide to produce another stem cell quotcommitted cellquot that becomes and osteoblast 0 located in periosteum and endosteum o osteoblasts formed from osteoprogenitor stem cells cuboidal structure secrete initial semisolid organic form of bone matrix called osteoid will calcify as a result of calcium salt deposition 0 osteobasts produce new bone and once entrapped in the matrix they produce and secrete they turn into osteocytes o osteocytes mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts that are trapped in the matrix they secreted 0 found in small spaces in matrix called lacunae 0 maintain bone matrix and detect mechanical stress on bone 0 if stress present osteocytes tell osteoblasts to make new bone matrix at the surface 0 osteoclasts large multinuclear phagocytic cells 0 derived from fused bone marrow cells 0 ru led border where they contact bone increasing SA exposure to bone 0 located within or adjacent to a depression or pit in bone surface called a resorption lacuna 0 involved in bone resorption osteoclasts secrete hydrochloric acid l dissolves mineral calcium phosphate parts of bone matrix lysosomes within osteoclasts secrete enzymes that dissolve organic part of matrix osteolysis release of stored calcium and phosphate from bone matrix to tissue uid then blood 0 osteoclasts remove matrix and osteobasts make it maintaining delicate balance 0 osteobast and osteoclast activity are affected by hormone levels need for minerals in body and mechanicalgra vitationa stressors on bone a when osteobast activity gt osteoclast activity bones have greater mass Composition of the Bone Matrix 0 13 of bone mass is organic components cells collagen bers ground substance 0 collagen bers give bone tensile strength by resisting stretching and twisting adds to exibility 0 ground substance is semisolid material that suspends and supports collagen bers 0 Inorganic components provide compressional strength 0 mostly calcium phosphate 0 calcium phosphate calcium hydroxide hydroxyapatite crystals around collagen bers in extracellular matrix hardening the matrix calci cation Comparison of Compact and Spongy Bone Two types of connective tissue in bones o compact bone quotdense or cortical bonequot solid relatively dense 0 solid external walls of long bone 0 spongy bone quotcancellous or trabecular bonequot porous like sponge 0 forms open lattice of narrow plates of bone called trabeculae 0 located internally primarily in epiphyses 0 diplo is spongy bone between 2 layers of compact bone in at bone of skull 0 contains no osteons or concentric lamellae contains parallel lamellae lacunae and canaliculi Compact Bone Microscopic Anatomy organized into a cylindrical osteon or Haversian system which is the basic functional and structural unit of mature compact bone osteons run parallel to diaphysis and is a 3D structure is microscopic OSTEONS HAVE THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS central canal quotHaversian canal is cylindrical channel in center of osteon traveling within are blood vessels and nerves that supply the bone concentric lamellae rings of bone connective tissue surrounding central canal form bulk of osteon contains collagen bers oriented in one direction and adjacent lamellae contain perpendicular bers ALTERNATING COLLAGEN FIBER DIRECTION GIVES BONE PART OF ITS STRENGTH AND RESILIENCE 0 numbers vary among osteons contain collagen bers and are rings of bone issue 0 they do not contain blood vessels and nerves the osteonic canal inside contains them not the lamellae osteocytes housed in lacunae and occur between adjacent concentric lamellae canaliculi tiny interconnecting channels within bone connective tissue that extend from and connect lacuna traveling through lamellae also connects lacuna to central canal 0 house osteocyte cytoplasmic projections that permit intercellular contact and communication 0 nutrients minerals gases and wastes travel through canaliculi between central canal and osteocytes ALSO IN COMPACT BONE BUT NOT IN OSTEONS Perforating canals contain blood vessels and nerves but run perpendicular to central canals and help connect central canals creating vascular and innervation connection among osteons circumferential lamellae rights of bone immediately internal to periosteum of bone external circumferential lamellae or internal to endosteum internal circumferential lamellae 0 both appear during bone formation run circumference of bone itself interstitial lamellae leftover parts of osteons that have been partially resorbed 0 look like a bite has been taken out of them 0 incomplete have no central canal Sponov Bone Microscooic Anatomv contains no osteons instead the trabeculae of spongy bone are composed of parallel lamellae between lamellae are osteocytes resting in lacunae numerous canaliculi radiate from lacunae nutrients diffuse through canaliculi that open to surfaces of the trabeculae to reach the osteocytes trabeculae are network of crisscrossing bars and plates of bone pieces l distributes stresses and forces across bone Ossi cation or osteogenesis is the formation and development of bone connective tissue begins in embryo and continues as the skeleton grows even after adult bone forms ossi cation continues 812 weeks of development skeleton forms from thick condensations of mesenchyme or a hyaline cartilage model of bone 0 models are replaced by hard bone lntramembranous Ossi cation bone growth within a membrane thin layer of mesenchyme is the membrane bone is derived from it mesenchyme is an embryonic connective tissue that has mesenchymal cells and abundant ground substance produces at bones of skull some facial bones zygomatic bone maxilla the mandible and the central part of the clavicle Steps of intramembranous ossi cation 0 begins when mesenchyme becomes thickenedcondensed wdense supply of blood capillaries o l Ossi cation centers form within thickened regions of mesenchyme o 2 Osteoid undergoes calci cation o 3 Woven bone and its surrounding periosteum form woven bone is the primary bone connective tissue formed is immature not well organized lamellar bone is secondary bone replaces woven o 4 Lamellar bone replaces woven bone as compact bone and spongy bone form lamellar bone replaces trabeculae of woven bone external trabeculae are lled l compact bone internal trabeculae modi ed l spongy bone at bone results with 2 external layers of compact bone spongy layer between Endochondral Ossi cation produces bones of upper and lower limb pelvis vertebrae ends of clavicle long bone begins with hyaline cartilage Stei3s o 1 Fetal hyaline cartilage model develops o chondroblasts secrete cartilage matrix hyaline forms 0 chondroblasts become chondrocytes trapped n lacunae o perichondrium surrounds cartilage o 2 Cartilage calci es periosteal bone collar forms 0 chondrocytes start to hypertrophy enlarge and resorb eat away surrounding cartilage matrix large holes in matrix 0 cartilage matrix calci es chondrocytes die and disintegrate because nutrients can not pass l calci ed shaft with holes where chondrocytes were 0 blood vessels grow toward penetrate perichondrium around shaft stem cells here divide and form osteoblasts 0 tissue becomes vascularized perichondrium periosteum o osteoblasts in internal layer of periosteum secrete osteoid around calci ed shaft l osteoid hardens and forms a periosteal bone collar around shaft 0 3 The primary ossi cation center region where bone replaces cartilage in the center of the diaphysis of hyaline cartilage model forms in the diaphysis 0 growth of a periosteal bud lled wcapillaries and osteoblasts extends from periosteum into core of shaft l invades spaces left by chondrocytes l osteoblasts produce osteoid 0 center of diaphysis is primary ossi cation center ossi cation spreads outward to epiphyses calcifying tissue 0 4 Secondary ossi cation centers form in the epiphyses 0 same process of ossi cation occurs in epiphyses 0 When cartilage here degenerates at birth epiphyseal blood vessels and osteoprogenitor cells reach epiphysis o secondary ossi cation centers form as bone replaces calci ed cartilage I not all form at birth some in childhood I when forming osteoclasts resorb bone matrix within diaphysis and create a hollow medullary cavity 0 5 Bones replaces cartilage except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates 0 end of bone development hyaline cartilage only found as articular cartilage on the articular surface of each epiphysis and is called the epiphyseal plate sandwiched between diaphysis and epiphysis o 6 Epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines 0 upon reaching adult size 0 epiphyseal line remnant of epiphyseal plate internal thin line of compact bone 0 Depending on the bone epiphyseal plate ossi cation occurs between ages 1025 years Comparison of lntramembranous and Endochondral Ossi cation Starting Tissue o l mesenchyme o E hyaline cartilage lnitial Development 0 l 8 weeks 0 E 812 weeks Ossi cation Centers o I multiple 0 E Diaphysis rst then epiphyses Examples of bones o I at bones of skull some facial bones mandible and central clavicle o E upper and lower limb bones pelvis vertebrae ends of clavicle ribs Epiphyseal Plate Morphology The epiphyseal plate has ve zones wzone l nearest to epiphysis and last zone 5 is near diaphysis o 1 zone of resting cartilage 2 proliferating cartilage 3 hypertrophic cartilage 4 calci ed cartilage 5 zone of ossi cation Growth of Bone o interstitial growth is lengthwise growth occurs within epiphyseal plate which maintains thickness and is pushed away from center of shaft 0 at maturity epiphyseal cartilage production slows osteoblast activity accelerates o appositiona growth is growth in thickness occurs within periosteum o osteoblasts lay done layers of bone matrix parallel to surface called external circumferential lamellae like tree rings expansion of width Bone Remodeling 0 bone continues to grow and renew itself throughout life 0 bone remodeling is the continual deposition of new bone connective tissue and the removal resorption of old bone connective tissue 0 helps maintain calcium and phosphate levels in body stimulated by stress on bone fracture exercise ongoing process occurs at periosteal and endosteal surfaces of bone modi es architecture of bone or changes total amount of minerals deposited in the skeleton o formationgtresorption in children reverse in adults 0000 Blood Supply and Innervation blood is highly vascularized red bone marrow 4 major sets of blood vessels nutrient artery nutrient blood vessels and nutrient vein supply diaphysis of long bone nutrient artery enters and nutrient vein leaves bone via a nutrient foramen in bone branches extend along shaft and into central canal of osteons metaphyseal arteries and metaphyseal veins provide blood supply to diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate where new bone ossi cation forms bone connective tissue to replace epiphyseal plate cartilage epiphyseal arteries and veins provide blood to epiphyses of bone 0 once epiphyseal line forms epiphyseal and metaphyseal blood supplies interconnect quotanastomosequot periosteal arteries and veins provide blood to external circumferential lamellae and super cial osteons within the compact bone at the external edge of bone MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS AND PROMOTING BONE GROWTH Effects of Hormones Hormones control and regulate bone growth and maintenance by altering the rates of osteoblast and osteoclast activity Growth hormone somatotropin produced by the anterior pituitary gland affects bone growth by stimulating the formation of another hormone called quotsomatomedinquotwhich is produced in liver and stimulates growth of cartilage in epiphyseal plate Thyroid hormone secreted by thyroid gland stimulates bone growth by in uencing basal metabolic rate of bone cells Both hormones balanced together maintain normal activity at epiphyseal plates until puberty 2 hormones regulate calcium levels in blood calcitonin secreted by cells in thyroid gland in response to elevated levels of calcium in blood encourages calcium deposition from blood into bone and inhibits osteoclast activity o parathyroid hormone producedreleased by parathyroid glands in response to reduced calcium levels in blood stimulates osteoclasts to resorb bone and increase calcium in blood sex hormones estrogen and testosterone dramatically accelerate bone growth increase rate of bone formation by osteoblasts in ossi cation centers in epiphyseal plate prominent in puberty abnormal amounts of hormones malfunctions in bone maintenance and growth 0 glucocorticoids hormones produced by adrenal cortex levels too high cause bone resorption and lead to loss of bone mass Effects of Vitamins vitamins required for bone growth and maintenance 0 vitamin A activates osteoblasts o vitamin C required for normal synthesis of collagen the primary organic component in bone matrix 0 vitamin D stimulates absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions into the blood necessary for calci cation of bone Effects of Exercise 0 mechanical stress exercise is needed for normal bone remodeling 0 increased amounts of mineral salts deposited and collagen bers synthesized 0 increases production of calcitonin which makes bone grow Fracture Repair 0 fracture break in bone 0 stress facture tiny break caused by recent increased physical activity in which bone experiences repetitive loads occur in weight bearing bones o traumatic fracture results from impact or excess stress to the bone 0 pathologic fracture results from bone being weakened by disease fractures categorized by amount of soft tissue damaged 0 simple fracture broken bone doesn t penetrate skin compound fracture does Steps of bone fracture repair l A fracture hematoma forms from clotted blood in area 2 A brocartilaginous soft callus forms 0 regenerated blood capillaries in ltrate hematoma 0 hematoma reorganized into actively growing connective tissue called a procallus produces collagen bers that connect broken ends of bones 0 procallus becomes brocartilaginous soft callus after chondroblasts form dense regular connective tissue 3 A hard bony callus forms 0 replaces brocartilaginous callus by osteoprogenitor cells adjacent to callus becoming osteoblasts and producing trabeculae of primary bone 4 The bone is remodeled 0 hard callus for 34 months as osteoclasts remove excess bone compact bone replaces primary bone fracture leaves thick spot in bone BONE MARKINGS bone markings or surface features characterize each bone in body include projections marking tendon or ligament attachment points used to describe elevations and depressions condyle large smooth rounded articulating oval structure facet small at shallow articulating surface head prominent rounded epiphysis trochlea smooth grounded pulleylike articular process alveolus deep pit or socket in the maxillae or mandible fossa attened or shallow depression sulcus narrow groove crest narrow prominent ridgelike projection epicondyle projection adjacent to a condyle line low ridge process any marked bony prominence ramus angular extension of a bone relative to the rest of the structure spine pointed slender process trochanter massive rough projection found only on the femur tubercle small round projection tuberosity large rough projection canal passageway through a bone ssure narrow slitlike opening through a bone foramen rounded passageway through a bone sinus cavity or hollow space in bone AGING OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Two ways 1 tensile strength of bone decreases because of a reduced rate of protein synthesis l can t produce bone matrix D brittle bones 2 bone oses calcium and minerals l thin bones insuf cient ossi cation osteopenia o aging causes all people to become slightly osteopenic o osteoporosis bone mass becomes reduced enough to compromise normal function region of mature bone between diaphysis and epiphysis is the metaphysis fracture at distal end of bula and maleous of tibia is speci cally called a Pott fracture cancer is most likely to be involved in a pathologic fracture rings of bone connective tissue that surround the central canal of an osteon are called concentric lameae CHAPTER 9 ARTICULATIONS Articulations ointsl the place of contact between bones between bone and cartilage or between bones and teeth bones are said to articulate with each other at a joint 0 arthrology is the study ofjoints there is an inverse relationship between mobility and stability in articulations more movement less stable Classi cation of loints joints are categorized structuraly on basis of type of connective tissue binding articulating surfaces of bones and whether a space occurs between the articulating bones brous joint bones held together by dense regular brous connective ssue cartilaginous joint bones joined by cartilage o synovial joint uid lled joint cavity separating cartilagecovered articulating surfaces of the bones articulating surfaces enclosed within a capsule bones are joined by various ligaments joints classi ed functionaly based on extent of movement permitted 0 synarthrosis immovable joint 0 amphiarthrosis slightly movable joint 0 diarthrosis freely movable joint Fibrous loints Articulating bones joined by dense regular connective tissue most are immovable or slightly movable have no joint cavity there are 3 types Gomphoses quotpeg in socketquot o articulations of roots of individual teeth with sockets of mandible and maxillae tooth held in place by brous periodontal membrane synarthrosis joint Sutures immovable brous joints occur only between certain bones of skull have distinct interlocking usually irregular edges that both increase strength and decrease number of fractures at these articulations permit the skull to grown as brain size increases childhood becomes ossi ed in adults fusion of suture causes them to become synostoses Syndesmoses brous joints in which articulating bones are joined by long strands of dense regular connective tissue only allow for slight mobility amphiarthrosis occur between radius amp ulna tibia amp bula bones bound side by side by a broad ligamentous sheet called and interosseous membrane which provides a pivot point for bones to move against one another Cartilaginous oints Sync hond roses articulations where bones are joined by hyaline cartilage immobile synarthrosis hyaline cartilage of epiphyseal plates in children forms synchondroses that bind epiphysis and diaphysis of long bone when hyaline stops growing bone replaces cartilage and synchondroses no longer exists sphenooccipital synchondroses between sphenoid and basilar part of occipital bone doesn t fuse until 20 s chostochondral joints joints between each bony rib and its respective costal cartilage Symphyses have pads of brocartilage between articulating bones that resist compression and tension stresses and act as a resilient shock absorber all are amphiarthroses slight mobility pubic symphysis between right and left pubic bones allows pubis of pregnant females to change shape for delivery 0 intervertebral joints Synovial loints o freely mobile articulations bones separated by a joint cavity space 0 most common joints are synovial o glenohumeral shoulder tempromandibular elbow knee 0 diarthroses freely movable General Anatomy of Synovial joints 0 all have basic features of an articular capsule joint cavity synovial uid articular cartilage ligaments and nerves and blood vessels articular capsule doublelayered capsule enclosing synovial joints 0 outer layer is brous layer formed from dense connective tissue strengthens joint to prevent bones pulling apart 0 inner layer is synovial membrane composed of areolar connective tissue covers all internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage lines articular capsule articulating bone surfaces are covered by thin hyaline cartilage layer called articular cartilage 0 reduces friction in joint during movement spongy cushion to absorb compression prevents damage to articulating ends of bones lacks a perichondrium because mature cartilage is avascular frequent stress of exercise is vital to maintain healthy articular cartilage because it enhances nutrition and waste removal 0 joint cavity quotarticular cavityquot is space with some synovial uid 0 permits separation of articulating bones synovial uid is viscous and oily composed of secretions from synovial membrane lining joint cavity has 3 functions OOOO o 1 lubricating the articular cartilage on articulating bones o 2 nourishes articular cartilage s chondrocytes movement expansioncompression at synovial joint causes articular cartilage to circulate synovial uid 0 3 acts as shock absorber distributing stresses and force evenly across articular surfaces when the pressure in the joint suddenly increases ligaments composed of dense regular connective tissue connect bone to bone strengthen and reinforce most synovial joints 0 extrinsic ligaments are outside of and separate from articular capsule o intrinsic ligaments represent thickenings of the articular capsule itself sensory nerves and blood vessels that innervate and supply articular capsule and associated ligaments o sensory nerves detect pain and report on amount of movementstretch l nervous system adjusts body bursa brous saclike structure that contains synovial uid and is lined by a synovial membrane 0 occur where any structures overlie and rub can be connected to joint cavity or completely separate 0 alleviates friction o elongated bursa called a tendon sheath wraps around tendons where there is excessive friction wrist ankle fat pads along margins of synovial joint 0 packing material provide some protection forjoint o ll spaces that form when bones move and joint cavity changes shape tendons are not part of synovial joint itself composed of dense regular connective tissue binds muscle to bone 0 help stabilize joints by passing across or around joint 0 can limit range or amount of movement in joint Types of Synovial joints cassified by types of movement allowed uniaxial bone moves in just one plane or axis biaxial bone moves in two planes or axis 0 multiaxial bone moves in multiple planes or axes a synovial joints are diarthroses but some more than others types are in order of least movable to most movable plane joint quotplanar or gliding jointquot 0 simplest synovial articulation least mobile type 0 uniaxial joint with only sidetoside movement 0 articulating surfaces of bones are at or planar o intercarpal and intertarsal joints 0 hinge joint uniaxial joint in which convex surface of one articulating bone ts into a concave depression of other bone 0 movement on singe axis 0 elbow knee ngerjoints o pivot joint uniaxial joint in which one articulating bone with a rounded surface ts into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone 0 atlantoaxial joint between rst two cervical vertebrae rounded dens of axis ts snugly against an articular facet on the anterior arch of the atlas joint pivots when shaking head no condylar joints quotcondyloid or ellipsoid jointsquot biaxial joints with an oval convex surface on one bone that articulates with a concave articular surface on the second bone 0 move on two axes o metacarpophalangeal joints of ngers 2 and 5 saddle joint articular surfaces of bones have convex and concave regions that resemble shape of saddle o carpometacarpal joint of thumb ballandsocket joints multiaxial joints in which spherical articulating head of one bone ts into the rounded cuplike socket of a second bone 0 hip and glenohumeral joint O 0 permits movement on three axes most freely movable type of synovial joint Movements at Synovial Joints four types of movement 0 Gliding simple movement two opposing surfaces slide slightly backand forth or sidetoside with respect to one another 0 0 angle between bones does not change and only limited movement is possible in any direction occurs along plane joints 0 Angular increases or decreases angle between two bones O O 0 occur at many synovial joints include exion and extension hyperextension lateral exion abduction and adduction circumduction exion movement in an anteriorposterior AP plane of body that decreases angle between articulating bones extension movement in AP plane that increases angle between articulating bones hyperextension extension of a joint beyond 180 degrees lateral exion trunk of body moves in a coronal plane laterally away from body occurs between vertebrae in cervical and lumbar regions abduction lateral movement of body part away from body midline adduction moving body part toward body midline circumduction sequence of movements in which proximal end of an appendage remains relatively stationary while the distal end makes circular motion result of continuous sequence of exion abduction extension and adduction o Rotation pivoting motion in which bone turns on its own longitudinal axis 0 O atlantoaxial joint lateral rotation turns anterior surface of laterally out medial rotation turns anterior surface medially in o pronation medial rotation of the forearm so that the palm of the hand is directed posteriorly or inferiorly o supination forearm rotates laterally so that palm faces anteriorly or superiorly Special Movements occur only at speci c joints include o depression inferior movement of a part of body 0 elevation superior movement of body part 0 only in ankle joint are dorsi exion bent upward and plantar exion inferior extension of foot downward o occurring only in intertarsal joints of foot are inversion sole of foot turns medially and eversion where sole turns to face laterally also called quotpronation and supinationquot o protraction anterior movement of body part from anatomic position 0 retraction posteriorly directed movement of a body part from anatomic position 0 opposition is moving thumb to touch nger pads enables hands to grasp distinctive human digital movement 0 opposite of opposition is reposition Temporomandibular Joint TMJ formed by the articulation of the head of the mandible with the articular tubercle of the temporal bone anteriorly and the mandibular fossa posteriorly only mobile joint between skull bone articular capsule surrounds the joint and promotes and extensive range of motion poorly stabilized l easily dislocation of mandible articular disc thick pad of brocartilage separating the articulating bones and extending horizontally to divide the joint cavity into two separate chambers l TM is really two synovial joints one between temporal bone and articular disc another between articular disc and mandible sphenomandibular ligament stylomandibular ligament and temporomandibular ligament support this joint exhibits hinge gliding and some pivot joint movements lntervertebral Articulations occur between bodies of vertebrae and superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae intervertebral discs are pads of brocartilage that separate and cushion all vertebral bodies between the axis C2 and the sacrum Each disc has two components 0 anulus brosus is tough outer layer of brocartilage that covers each intervertebral disc contains collagen bers that attach disc to vertebrae and to ligaments along vertebrae o nucleus pulposus is the inner gelatinous core of the disc primarily water with some reticular and elastic bers loss of water in nucleus pulposus causes shrinking of spine with age and increased probability of injury anterior longitudinal ligament posterior longitudinal ligament interspinous ligaments supraspinous ligament ligamentum avum and ligamentum nuchae support the vertebral column Sternoclavicular loint saddle joint formed by articulation between manubrium of sternum and sternal end of clavicle articular disc partitions the Sternoclavicularjoint into two parts with two separate joint cavities wide range of movement supportedstabilized by bers of articular capsule anterior sternoclavicular ligament and posterior sternoclavicular ligament costoclavicular ligament is strong and wide attaches clavicle to rst rib stabilizes joint and prevents dislocation of shoulder when shoulder is elevated interclavicular ligament runs along sternal notch attaches to each clavicle reinforces superior regions of adjacent capsules makes joint very stable why clavicle breaks before joint dislocates Acromioclavicular loint plane joint between acromion and acromial end of clavicle brocartilaginous articular disc lies within joint cavity joint works with both sternoclavicular joint and glenohumeral joint to give upper limb full movement range Acromioclavicular ligament coracoclavicular ligament binds clavicle to coracoid process of scapula responsible for most stability of joint if torn causes complete separation Glenohumeral Shoulder loint ballandsocket joint formed by articulation of head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula permits greatest range of motion of any joint in body also most unstable joint in body most frequently dislocated brocartilaginous glenoid labrum encircles and covers surface of glenoid cavity coracoacromial ligament coracohumeral ligament glenohumeral ligaments often indistinct or absent minimal support transverse humeral ligament tendon of the long head of biceps brachii ligaments strengthen joint only minimally most of strength is from rotator cuff muscles surrounding it hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity tendons encircle joint and fuse with articular capsule inferior portion does not have rotator cuff and is most likely to be injured bursae decrease friction subacromial bursa subcoracoid bursa subdeltoid bursa subscapular bursa Elbow oint hinge joint composed primarily of two articulations the humeroulnarjoint ulna articulates w trochlea of humerus and the humeroradial joint capitulum of humerus articulates with the head of radius that are enclosed in a single articular capsule extremely stable because 0 articular capsule is fairly thick provides protection bony surfaces of humerus and ulna interlock well strong supporting ligaments thus it is not as mobile radial collateral ligament and ulnar collateral ligament are two main supporting ligaments along with anular ligament connecting radius and ulna holds radius in place for pronation and supination of forearm 0 subject to damage dislocations probably esp during growth OOOO Radiocarpal Wrist loint articulation among three proximal carpal bones the distal surface of the radius and a brocartilaginous articular disc separating ulna from radiocarpal joint entire wrist enshealthed in articular capsule reinforcing ligaments condylar articulation that permits everything but rotation intercarpal articulation are plane joints that permit gliding movements between individual carpal bones Hip Coxal loint articulation between head of femur and relatively deep concave acetabulum of the os coxae deep bony socket strong articular capsule supporting ligaments and muscular padding stable joint mm 0 largest and most complex diarthrosis of the both 0 2 parts tibiofemoral joint and the patellofemoral joint articular capsule in medial lateral and posterior regions but the anterior is covered by the quadriceps femoris muscle tendon where the patella is embedded patellar ligament extends patella to tibia o no common joint cavity or uni ed capsule o medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus are brocartilage pads that stabilize the joint medially and laterally act as cushions continuously change shape 0 anterior cruciate ligament ACL from posterior femur to anterior side of tibia when knee is extended ACL is tight and prevents hyperextension prevents tibia from moving anteriorly too far crossing ACL is posterior cruciate ligament PCL from anteroinferior femur to posterior side of tibia taut on exion prevents hyperflexion prevents posterior displacement of tibia on femur Talocrural Ankle loint 0 highly modi ed hinge joint permits dorsi exion and plantar exion 0 two articulations within one articular capsule deltoid ligament binds tibia to foot on medial side and prevents overeversion of foot very strong and rarely tears o lateral ligament prevents overinversion loints of the Foot Four types of synovial joints occur in foot intertarsal joints tarsometatarsal joints metatarsophalangeal joints and interphalangeal joints Disease and Aging of oints prior to epiphyseal plate closure injuries can fracture it after closures it is typically a sprain o arthritis disease that involves damage to articular cartilage 0 osteoarthritis prevalent problem in aging joint from cumulative wear and tear health ofjoints related to moderate exercise like bone strength 0 exercise also strengthens muscles around joints extreme exercise aggravates joints too quickly in life Develooment of the loints cartilage and dense connective tissue derives from mesenchyme
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