Week #3: The Endomembrane System
Week #3: The Endomembrane System BIO 183
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Huryn on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Miriam Ferzli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio Cell/ Micro in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Anna Huryn Week #3: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli The Endomembrane System Cell Surfaces: The Cell Wall Found in plants, prokaryotes, fungi and some protists Serves multiple functions, in plants it protects the cell, maintains its shape, prevents excessive uptake of water, and supports the plant against the force of gravity Animal cells lack a cell wall but instead have an elaborate extracellular matrix The Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Made up of glycoproteins the most abundant being collagen which forms strong fibers outside of the cell Embedded in a network of proteoglycans Fibronectin attaches the ECM to integrins Integrins = receptor proteins in the plasma membrane which transmit stimuli between the cell’s external and internal environment Anna Huryn Week #3: BIO 183 Dr. Miriam Ferzli Surface Proteins & Cell Identity: Cells of the same type recognize each other o Identity is determined by surface markers (on ECM) Ex. glycolipids on the surface of red blood cells determine the A, B, O blood groups Immune system of vertebrates uses specific surface markers to distinguish “self” from “non-self” Intercellular Junctions: Plant cells have plasmodesmata which allow cytosol to pass between cells Animal cells have tight junctions, anchoring junctions, and gap junctions Local signaling = direct cell-to-cell contact Long-distant signaling = uses hormones to communicate with cells not next to each other Three Stages of Signaling: 1. Receptor Activation = a chemical signal binds to a cellular protein at the cell’s surface or inside the cell. The signal molecule is a ligand, a small molecule that binds with specificity to a larger molecule (the receptor). 2. Signal Transduction = binding leads to a change in the receptor that triggers a series of changes in a series of different molecules 3. Cellular Response = the transduced signal triggers a specific cellular activity
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