Week #3: Organelle Review
Week #3: Organelle Review BIO 183
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Huryn on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 183 at North Carolina State University taught by Dr. Miriam Ferzli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Bio Cell/ Micro in Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Organelles 1. Mitochondrion = the sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats and other fuels with the help of oxygen 2. Nucleus = an organelle that contains most of the genetic material of a cell 3. Nucleolus = A small, typically round granular body composed of protein and RNA in the nucleus of a cell, usually associated with a specific chromosomal site and involved in ribosomal RNA synthesis and the formation of ribosomes 4. Cytosol = the aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell, within which various organelles and particles are suspended 5. Cytoplasm = The jellylike material that makes up much of a cell inside the cell membrane 6. Centrosome = a region often located near the nucleus that is considered to be a “microtubule organizing center” 7. Centriole = found in the center of centrosomes and help organize microtubules assembly 8. Golgi = the manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping center of the cell 9. Lysosome = a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest all kinds of macromolecules 10. Peroxisome = a specialized metabolic compartment that contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide, it then breaks down the hydrogen peroxide into water because the hydrogen itself is poisonous 11. Vacuole = serve as reserves for organic compounds, disposal sites for metabolic by- products, protects against harmful substances, and aids in growth 12. Chloroplast = the sites of photosynthesis that convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water *found only in plant cells 13. Ribosomes = organelles made of ribosomal RNA that synthesize proteins *there are two types of ribosomes: bound and free; free are suspended in cytosol while bound are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum 14. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum = an extensive network of membranes that play a large role in metabolic processes such as synthesizing lipids, metabolizing carbohydrates and detoxification 15. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum = an extensive network of membranes in which the attached ribosomes secrete proteins 16. Cytoskeleton = a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm, which plays a major role in organizing the structures and activities of the cell 17. Cell Wall = an extracellular structure that protects the plant cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water *found only in plant cells 18. Cell membrane = the semipermeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell
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