Infancy Chapter 2
Infancy Chapter 2 Psyc3260
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3260 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Bourgeois in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Infancy in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Infancy 01/19/2016 ▯ Chapter2: prenatal development ▯ ▯ Conception and fertility Begins with conception o Ovum+ spermatozoa (GAMETES) 350 ovulations over about 30 years For fertilization many sperm must bind to surface of ovum—random opening will then occur for single sperm to enter Fertilized egg= Zygote DNA makes up genotype… Genes arranged into chromosomes Every cell contains 46 except gamete (sex cells) which contain ½ (23) Phenotype- physical make up is determined by alleles— o Dominant- recessive inheritance or o Sex-linked inheritance Women are carriers of all of this characteristics Sex cells under-go meiosis (each cell gets ½) Recombination accounts for variation Male fertility- begins at puberty until death (avg) All of a girls ova are formed during prenatal development If two ovum ripen- two different zygotes--- dizygotic twins o When a fertilized zygote divides into 2—monozygotic twins Contraception- o Natural family planning avoid times of ovulation—successful but not fool-proof o Sterilization: used by 15% couples o Birth Control pulls, patches, implants, injections: used by 39% o Condoms/ diaphragms: 25% Sex ED and public family planning decrease pregnancy and abortion Along with genome (DNA) each cell has epigenome (biochemical markers that are responsive to environment and can activate or silence genes o Differentiation Development of phenotype= result of interaction between genotype, epigenome, intra/extra cellular environment 1st develop into a tube Prenatal change= changes in kind, number, position, size, shape ▯ Major Phases of prenatal development Zygotic: conception2 weeks Embryotic: 2weeks 3 months Fetal: 7 weeks 16 weeks, 1722, 2336 nd ▯ By end of 2 week there is a clearly defined embryonic disk between amniotic and yolk sac. Blastocyst triggers “Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin” (HCG) Period of Embryo o Embryonic disk differentiates to become—endoderm (digestive/ respiratory) o Mesoderm (muscle, bone, circulatory, reproductive) o Ectoderm (central nervous brain, sense organs, skin, nails) o Yolk Sac produce blood cells—disappear by end of embryonic o Chorionic membrane surrounds developing placenta (outer surface of chorionic) links mothers blood stream to embryo--- passes nutrients/ oxygen o Can distinguish head by 3 week- 1 months heart beat o By 4 ½ weeks embryo has all major organs and rudimentary sensory system o By 7 responsive to touch in mouth region and will turn head Fetal Period o I: 7-16 (2-3 months) Localize movement – specific reflexes occur Use ultra sound to observe Movement may be to keep fetus comfortable in their moving environment Hemispheres of brain development 3 months external sex organs emerge—testosterone levels o II: 17-22 (4-6 months) More specialized/ controlled movements Size increases by a factor of 4 Rathd brain growth 4 month- lanugo (fine hair) all over 5 month- coarse hair on head Vernix caseosa secreted to protect skin o III- 23-36 (7-9) Active 20-30% time Can 1 feel movement Cathfeel pain-- thalamus develop connections 8 month- can open eyes, hear, smell, feel 3=4 time in REM sleep Can learn at this point Child Birth o US birth rate is 14 per 1000 (avg: 2 children) o Birth process begins during last several weeks of pregnancy o Braxton- Hicks- muscle contractions (false labor) help widen cervix and move fetus closer to cervix o Labor begins with contraction every 20-30 mins o 1 stage: lasts until cervix is fully dilated o 2 ndstage: infant passes through cervix and vagina rd o 3 stage: birth of placenta o Births occurring +/- 2 weeks of due date are within normal range o Timing of birth is controlled by corticotrophin- releasing hormone (CRH) Technology o Fetal monitoring device to measure heart beat during birth process o Forceps fit around head and pull baby through birth canal (being phased out) o Vacuum Extraction o C-section increasingly popular—much longer recovery time o Fetal distress= sudden loss of oxygen (requires C-section) o Drugs for Anesthesia (loss of sensation) and analgesia (pain relief) are used for pain control o Epidural- local anesthetic blacks pain but mother is awake and aware o Birthing Centers- comforts of home and accessibility to medical assistance Really important and beneficial to low Socioeconomic families o Hospitals have their own policies but may be tailored to fit requests of individuals o Hospitals stays last 1-3 days- hospitals allow discharge within 3 hours o Lamaze breathing o Upright posture= better during labor process o Home births with midwife assistance- increasing in popularity ▯ ▯
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