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Tuesday January 21 2014 psych 7 Midterm 1 Psychology is a branch of sciences at research universities Scientific Method in general guides research methods What is scientific method What distinguishes scientific evidence from other evidence It can39t check and verify it is NOT scientific method Science is 1 Empirical based on observations Objective observations and conclusions are clearly defined in ways that allow others to get the same results ideas are testifible verifiable 2 Systematic Observations organized in a way that provides clear evidence for specific claims Based on Theory Science based on observations vs authority Prohibition against arguing from authority in science alters nature of expertise An expert is not someone who has correct answers only someone who knows Auras and Objectivity Some people see auras around people Human head with light beaming around based on observations not available to everyone Not objective not verifiable Systematic tests Measuring devices and blind tests Brofman Foundation for Advancement of Healing Systematic Explanation of TT therapeutic touch Whether sense which hands had human hands placed above Practitioners correct 44 of trials Systematic Though Clinic that treats anxiety disorders in children Kids get better over time Good enough evidence Evidence that therapies help patients Tuesday January 21 2014 Randomized experimentstrongest evidence Question of proper research design is crucial to evaluation of whether therapy works Intuition as Evidence Intuition can be wrong Our perception and reasoning mechanisms may not always be accurate Even when intuition is correct its NOT scientific evidence Usually subjective and unsystematic Change Blindness amp The Scientific Method The observation People are not good at detecting changes in the environment The hypothesis People will be slower to detect a change in two successive scenes if some visual event briefly intervenes between those two scenes The method Experiment using the Flicker Paradigm In one condition subjects reaction time is measured to a changing object in one of two identical scenes that flicker back and forth with a gray screen presented between the scenes for 80 msecs In another condition subjects reaction time is measured to a changing object in one of two identical scenes that flicker back and forth without a gray screen The result Subjects are significantly slower in the condition with the intervening gray screen Hot hand in basketball Belief can make multiple shots in a row Evidence intuitioncommon sense inferences from casual observations Goals of Psychological Research 1 Describe Directly observed 2 Predict anticipate events 3 Determine causes 4 Explain Describing behavior Hypothesis people have rightward bias in headturning when kissing Results 80 out of 124 turned heads right Hypothesis statement about the world that may be true Eg most people turn to right when kissing Tuesday January 21 2014 Most Hypotheses state that 2 or more variables are related to each other ex crowding increases anxiety Variable any event situation or behavior that has at least 2 values operational definition of variables definition of a variable in terms of how it is measured eg aggression stress or sefesteem Operational def put concepts in public realm where they can be criticized tested improved or rejected All variables must have operational def to meet objectivity criterion Predictions concern outcomes of specific studies HYPOTHESES usually stated at level of theoretical constructs SES assoc with greater intelligence predictions at level of operational definitions people who score high on NEO extraversion scale will report greater desire to skydive Theories generate and explain sets of hypothesis Theory is conceptual framework that organizes and explains larger body of facts Theory Hypotheses Predictions Extraverts have low baseline levels of physiological arousal DataObservations Data from a specific sample do or do not support the prediction Conclusions Theory is provisionally supported or hypothesestheory may require modification Predicting Behavior at Voting Booth Positive r9O Negative No relationship Curvilinear R99i0 1 O Regiont 100 O Region2 O Regiont 80 75 5 30 00000 60 50 45 225 40 25 30 15 15 75 20 O o T o T APTquot e OAK April July April June Untitledt ShoWing relationship correlation between 2 variables doesn39t show cause and effect Tuesday January 21 2014 Problems in making causal statements Direction of Cause and Effect Confounding or lurking variables effects all correlational research Drinking Good for You Found higher wine consumption was associated with lower rates of mortality Possible causes of wine Wine intake itself reduces risk of death Direction of Causality Lurking variables much applied research presented in media is correlational and thus potentially suffers from lurking variable problems eg students whose parents monitor their homework get better grades ex relationship between coffee consumption and risk of heart disease Limitations of Correlation of potential lurking variables is in principle in nite cant statistically control for in nite of variables using techniques like partial correlation often cant control for variables perfectly ex when measuring education do all bachelors degree indicate identical education need to evaluate strength of evidence amp likelihood of alternative explanations on a case by case basis Cell Phone and Sperm Count Hypothesis that electromagnetic waves produced by cell phones may have adverse effects on mens sperm No causal relationship correlation arises from 3rd variable of stressful job correlated with both phone use and lower sperm Does negative correlation between cell usage and sperm counts at least provide evidence that phone usage may cause lower sperm counts Causal evidence from correlational data may depend on converging source of evidence Is there a theory that explainspredict causal relationships EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Tuesday January 21 2014 In experimental research the researcher manipulates at least one variable and then measures at least one outcome Example Subjects could be randomly assigned to either 1 drink 5 cups of coffee a day or 2 drink 0 cups of coffee Then compare cholesterol of 2 groups after a certain length of time 6 months 1 year 5 years Manipulated variables are called independent variables and outcome variables are called dependent variables In nonexperimental research independent variables are those hypothesized to be the cause and dependent variables are those hypothesized to be the effect EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL A key idea in experiments is that as much as possible only the manipulated variables differ between conditions Goal is to isolate the independent variable so that it is the only possible cause of differences between conditions In a correlational study individual differences between participants might act as lurking variables Examplezcoffee drinkers might exercise essand this explains the relationship between coffee consumption and cholesterol In an experiment random assignment should hold constant individual differences that could act as lurking variables if sample size is large enough Random Assignment Say we have 100 subjects for our coffee experiment 50 who exercise regularly and 50 who do not If we randomly assign eg flip a coin to the coffee vs no coffee conditions how many exercisers do we expect in each condition How many no exercisers ls exercise a lurking variable in this design What is true of exercise should be true for an infinite set of variables Say we have 6 subjects for our coffee experiment 3 who exercise and 3 who do not Will random assignment eliminate exercise as a possible confounding variable Sample size and controlling for individual difference variables Say we assign 50 students in the front of the class to the coffee condition and 50 in the back to the no coffee condition EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL Tuesday January 21 2014 A key idea in experiments is that as much as possible only the manipulated variables differ between conditions In our coffee example one group drinks 5 cups of coffee per day and the other group zero Say the shop providing the coffee for the experiment is at the top of a steep hill on campus is that a problem is coffee consumption the only thing that differs in the two experimental groups Experimental Control Variables that vary along with the independent variable in an experiment but that we did not intend to manipulate are known as confounding variables Confounding variables covary with one experimental group but not the other Although random assignment will eliminate individual differences that could act as lurking variables like exercise in the coffee example such variables can be smuggled in with the manipulation if the experiment is not designed in such a way that it completely isolates the independent variable Assessing Experiments Was randomization adequate If so an infinite set of individual difference variables in principle eliminated as possible lurking variables Did the manipulation introduce confounding variables E did the investigators manipulate variables they did not intend to manipulate If so then alternative explanations exist for differences between conditions In a perfectly run experiment any differences between experimental groups on the dependent variable must be caused by the manipulated variable Since only the manipulated variable differs between groups Experiments canin principeshow causation Howeversti need theory to interpret the effects of a manipulation Touch Therapy for Premature Infants Premature infants often in incubators with less human contact than fullterm infants Research with rats had shown 1 isolation from mother reduced pups weight gain 2 touching rats improved weight gain Human contacttouching improve health outcomes for premature infants Tuesday January 21 2014 Say performed a correlational study and greater touching associated with greater weight gain Can we conclude that touching causes greater weight gain Experimental Study of Touch 40 preterm infants lt 36 weeks at birth randomly assigned to a touch condition experimental group or no treatment control group Experimental Condition 15 minute session of stimulation each hour for 3 consecutive hours for 10 days weekends off Both tactile and kinesthetic stimulation Tactile for 5 min kinesthetic for 5 min tactile again for 5 min Control Condition No treatment normal nursing rounds Scafidi et al 1986 Dependent Variables Weight gain Measured from hospital charts not recorded by researchers along with other data feedings temperature heart rate etc Sleepwake time At end of 12 day period observer stood over each crib and recorded all state changes for 45 min Observer was blind to experimental condition Activity levels Measured by same observer as above Conclusions from Study In addition to above results infants in touch group were discharged from hospital 6 days earlier on average than those in control group savings of 3000 per infant 1985 these studies suggest that tactilekinesthetic stimulation may have important clinical and developmental benefits for small preterm infants What if a correlational study had been run instead Simply measured how often nurses touched babies and then measured same outcomes Different conclusions from study Do the alternative explanations for a correlational study apply to the experimental study Overly Dramatic Statement of the Day Understanding the differential causal inferences that can be drawn from experimental vs correlational research is one of the things that distinguishes educated from uneducated people Tuesday January 21 2014 As a consumer of research one of the first things you need to know is whether the research is correlational or experimental Often in media reports there is no explicit statement of this Search for clues words like randomized placebocontrolled investigators manipulated etc When evaluating any research need to reflexively think about and search for possible confounding variables that could act as alternative explanations Why does touch therapy produce results for infants Possible explanations Determining that A causes B does not necessarily demonstrate why or fully explain the phenomenon Theories function to supply candidate explanations that can then be tested with other data collections Basic Psychology Research Attempts to answer fundamental questions regarding the operation of brain mechanisms and the generation of behavior Often addresses why questions Applied Psychology Research Attempts to find solutions to practical problems Experiments and Cancer Treatment In 1890 s surgeon named William Halsted pioneered the radical mastectomy for treatment of breast cancer Idea was to remove not only diseased breast but also much underlying tissue Theory cancer spreads in spatial gradients from site of tumor greater chances of cure if remove more tissue expanding from site During 1900 s size of radical mastectomies expanded Removed pectoralis major muscle moves shoulder and hands With the pectoralis major cut off the shoulders caved inward as if in a perpetual shrug making it impossible to move the arm forward or sideways The radical mastectomy had thus edged into the superradica and then into the utraradica an extraordinarily morbid disfiguring procedure in which surgeons removed the breast the pectoralis muscles the axillary nodes the chest wall and occasionally ribs parts of the sternum the clavicle and the lymph nodes of the chest What was the evidence that it worked better than simpler surgeries There was a theory and data suggesting that some of the patients were cured And the authority of the surgeons Hasted meanwhile had become the patron saint of cancer surgery a deity presiding over his comprehensive theory of cancer What research design could test effectiveness of this surgery Tuesday January 21 2014 Randomized Experiment Testing Effectiveness of Radical Mastectomies A large experiment began in 1971 involving 34 centers in US and Canada and enrolling 1765 patients over 10 years Women with breast cancer were randomly assigned to 1 radical mastectomy 2 simple mastectomy 3 simple mastectomy radiation Ethics of chance determining treatment What if patientssurgeons determined treatment rather than chance Overall rates of relapse and death were not significantly different between treatment groups Probability of death by years after surgery circle radical triangle mast radiation Cancer Experiment From 18911981 estimated 500000 women underwent radical mastectomies in some form The radical mastectomy is rarely if ever performed by surgeons today Correlational data could not determine the effectiveness of this procedure One large experiment gave a fairly conclusive answer Experiments are powerful they can directly assess causality non experimental observation correlation measure variables but dont manipulate them advantages can observe people in real life sit can sample large of people representative Disadvantages difficult ro demonstrate causeeffect relationship Experimental manipulation some variable randomly assign to conditions Advantages can demonstrate causal relationships Disadvantages lab setting unrealistic may not generalize to world Tryouts in the Fall See Coach for Details Validities Construct operational def of variable reflect its intended theoretical meaning nterna conclude from our data that one variable actually cause another Tuesday January 21 2014 External results of a study be generalized to other subjects or contexts Ex how have good internal but bad external validity Research Ethics Science strives to objective repeatable conclusions based on concrete observations Ethics is unavoidably subjective to some degree Based on agreed upon standards convetions social norms Dealing with subjects 1 Human subjects approval institutional review board costbenefits analysis informed consent autonomy Debriefing Uquot39gt 3 Selection of subject Integrity of Data 1 Data Fraud 2 Safeguards against Fraud Use of Deception BueBrown Eyes Experiment Milgrams Obedience Zimbardos Prison EX 1 Blue Eye Brown Eye Classroom Experiment Hypothesis being included in particular group of people affect perception of people from other groups Methods classroom told kids with blue eyes better than brown deception kids didn39t realize just experiment results kids were bullied IO Tuesday January 21 2014 EX 2 Milgrams Obedience Experiment Electric Shock Debriefing 84 glad to be in the study Draw who is teacher who is learner Told test effects of punishment on memory Apply shocks to learner if answer wrong Shocks progress Learner is not a subject Shocks not applied IV DV Zimbardo s Standord Prison Experiment Hypothesis brutal callous behavior of prison guards had more to do with their social roles that their personalities Mocked prison set up with college students role playing took roles too serious after 6 days study was stopped guards became aggressive Animal Research Monkey each 4 pairs press lever at least once every 20 sec to avoid shocks results 34 died of ulcers integrity of the data data fraud data seemed too perfect identical error diff with replication Jan Hendrik Marc Hauser Harvard mirror recognition diff replicating his findings Peer review process competition Database repositories Raw data Replication Biggest clue if no one can replicate January 23 2014 Lecture Tuesday Midterm Pink parscore 50 multiple choice 11 Tuesday January 21 2014 Definitions Analyze research construct validitymeasuring what its supposed to measure Intelligence Operational definition intelligence is related to speed of mental processing Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale verbal subject comprehension Why should we obey traffic laws and speed limits Information what is entomology performance subtest block design History of the Intelligence Test Alfred Binet Is the IQ test a reliable and valid measure of intelligence Reliability testretest reliability if an individual is tested at 2 differ times will the scores be the same Pearson product correlation coefficient r internal consistency reliability if its measuring one or more splithalf reliabilityif you divide items of a test in half would both halves have same score Spearmans two factor intelligence theory g Each oval is hypothetical mental test blue areas show variance attributed to s and purple areas variance attributed to g Validity face vaidity measure appears to measure what its intended to measure one condition will be happier than another condition how do you measure happiness criterionoriented vaidity measure relates to theoretically predicted criteria 1 predictive is it related in predictable way to future behavior ex IQ test predict success in school it usually does 2 concurrent Does the measure correlate with current behavior do different groups of people differ on the measure in expected behavior 12 Tuesday January 21 2014 3 convergent is it related in predictable way to other variables that are supposed to measure the same thing ex is IQ measure of intelligence 4 discriminant Does the measure assess the intended construct better than other constructs Ex OCD scale and depression scale MEASUREMENT SCALES nominal categorical variable no numerical or quantitative properties ex BASS male or female subject Independent variables often nominal ordinal rank order of the levels of a variable ex ranking characteristics was ordinal Intervals between are not necessarily equal on ordinal scale eg list 10 favorite songs you may like 1 amp 2 the same interval intervals between are in size and there is no absolute zero point IQ scores are measured on interval scale since the interval between 85 and 100 is sam as 100 and 115 Ratio the intervals between numbers are also in size but there is no absolute zero point ex length weight and time Evolutionary Psychology Metatheoritical position that human brain contains a collection of specialized processing mechanisms designed by natural selection to address specific problems encountered by our ancestors over course of human evolution Ex adaptive Problems Navigation parenting male choiceattraction food choice Metatheory I Theory I Hypothesis I Predictions I Measuresresults Parental Investment Theory Trivets predicted sex with greater typical parental investment in offspring becomes limiting resource for reproductive success of opposite sex Females of most species make larger typical parental investment than do males 13 Tuesday January 21 2014 Bateman s data with fruit flies Put flies in container to mate separate females to lay eggs compute offspring Eagerness for Sex Sexual Variety of partners Coolidge Effect Clark amp Hatfield Study Percentage of subjects who agreed when approached by an opposite sex stranger Go on a date tonight Women 50 Men 50 Go to bed with me tonight Women 0 Men 75 Sex differences in human mate preferences evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures Hypothesis 1 Females should seek to mate with males who have ability amp willingness to provide resources such as food shelter Prediction 1 females more than males should value attributes in potential males such as ambition industriousness and earning capacity that signal possession or likely acquisition of resources Hypothesis 2 males should prefer attributes in potential mates associated with reproductive value Now goes to 37 different Cultures Characteristics Good financial prospect O unimportant to 3 indispensable ambition and industriousness Females 245 more than males 184 Age difference Males 266 Good lucks males 211 females 167 Evaluating Buss Study Independent variable Gender Male or Female Dependent variable Values Is this study an experiment What are possible problems with internal validity 14 Tuesday January 21 2014 Direction of causality Ridiculous NO your sex preference cant determine gender Alternative explanations to idea that biological sex causes distinct male preferences Buss position early hormone exposure causes development of differ preferences mechanism in men and women Alternatives to hormone theory for why say women prefer higher income in mate lurking variables NOTES FROM READING Scientific Research used in public policy behavioral research on human dev influence US Sup Court Research is important to when developing ampassessing effectiveness of programs designed to achieve certain goals Instead of scientific research people rely on Institution adopt child then find out pregnant when rely on intuition accept person judgement or people tell you can explain intriguing events Authority persuaded by speaker who seem prestigious trustworthy amprespectabe People rely on internet books religious figures empiricism knowledge based on observations skepticism ideas evaluated on basis of careful logic ampresults from scientific investigation Psuedoscience fake calims no basis in scientific research 5 sources of ideas 1 common sense observations of world around us 2 3 theories 4 past research 5 practical problems 15 Thursday January 30 2014 2nd Midterm E xperimental Psychology Observational Research Naturalistic Observations Goal to provide a complete and accurate pictureof behaviors events setting rather than to test hypotheses formed prior to study Usually quaitative Not manipulating setting often done in animal research Analyze observations and form hypotheses post hoc participation vs non participationconcealment vs nonconcealment problem of reactivity Problem of reactivity changing of behaviors with experimenter is watching ex kid when video camera is out Or if you watch a group for long enough then they get used to you and act normally important issue of how to categorize events without operational definitions how do you ensure observations are objective Robert studies of persuasion Low Ball Technique Customer given price much lower than salesman intends to sell car in order to induce customer to agree to purchase Foot in the Door Subjects were undergrads called to participate in psych study iv full disclosure 7am study vs commit then disclose DV Behavioral compliance Results 24 full disclosure vs 53 commit first Systematic Observations careful observation of one or more behaviors in a particular setting N ature quantitative 3 things make it systematicMethods components and issues coding system how to measure behavior Need recording equipment Realibility interrater reliability of coding Sampling what segment of time to record Limitations Reactivity all these careful methods used to record Ex diddling in baboons Study in baboons Hypothesis intense greeting such as gentile diddling are costly signals of close alliances Prediction positive correlation between amount of time spent togetheramount of grooming and freq of intense greetings Coding System time spent together amount of time within 15 meters of each other grooming de ned Sampling 15 males observed 30 min sessions recording equipment observer 30 software C reliability not recorded Reactivity on public at zoo don39t care ase Studies Goal to provide detailed descriptions of the behavior of an individual usually in rare circumstances qualitative conclusions often post hoc Patient studies Goal to link brain activity to beaver Modularity of Function Thursday January 30 2014 Paul Broc Broacs Area language production Archival Research Nature quantiative Methods components and issues mission data 3 tyypes statistical records survey archives written records content analysis devise coding systems that raters can use to quantify the data Limitations the records hard to obtain Homocide Data patterns of homicide used archival data from police departments and other gov records reasoned that homicides are objective and serious enough that accurate records are very likely to be kept February 42014 Make sure the question is directly related to the hypothesis Question How many times do you masturbate Choose one Never 01 week 12 34 etc Hypothesis This prediction is based on my knowledge Avoid loaded or leading Question Given the failure or welfare in US do you feel welfare programs should be eliminated 1 2 3 4 5 Halo effect avoid associating a position with a person so that responses may reflect feelings about the person rather than the position Do you agree with Bus that Hussein is a grave threat to security of US Do you eel Husserin is a grave threat to security of US Halo effect takes name out because if you like that person you will answer differently Doublebarreled questions Do you believe that airbags are unsafe and expensive Ask in two questions what if you think they are unsafe but not expensive how do you answer that question Open vs closed Questions Open respondents answer in their own words What is most important thing for children to prepare them for life Advantages Can discover unexpected answers dont restrict responses Disadventages Costly and timeconsuming to code respondents may not think of answers of interest to investigator Closed ended limit response alternatives choose from a list for most important thing question Advantages easier to code and ensure cover intended options disadvantages may be putting words into respondents mouths may have given other responses not on list Estimating Behavioral Frequencies Unless events are rare enough to count subjects use estimation strategies that may be affected by response alternatives To avoid these systematic influences of responses alternatives it is advisable to ask frequency questions in an openresponse format such as How many hours a day do you watch tv 2 Thursday January 30 2014 Closedended make sure options are mutually exclusive make sure options are exhaustive all possibilities are covered Close ended response options Question How long will someone wait in line at free birds at 1 or 2am when line is long on thurs Fri or sat night check one see line and go home 15 mins 610 mins 1115 mins 1620 min 21 plus Hypothesis I predict guys will stand in line longer for wholesome goodness of a free birds burrito because i feel guys are more likely to want to eat something after a long night of partying where as girls would perhaps rather just go to sleep Restatements of Freebirds Hypothesi After long night of partying which would you usually rather do Go to sleep Eat something Go straight to sleep Eat then go to sleep Response scale sensitivity insensitive response scales may produce ceiling or floor effects eg say testing hypothesis that women take more showers than men insensitive scale 1once a year or less 2more than once a year but once a month 3 between once a month and once a week 4 at least once a week when they clump at top thats a ceiling effect Effects of Question Ordering ex how satisfied are you with your life overall Answer likely depends on what info comes to mind is assessible when evaluating your life Other Questions can prime specific things coming to mind Ex how satisfied are you with your psych 7 grade Question 2 how satisfied are you with your life overall Evidence suggest people report their feelings about target items based on whatever infer currently accessible Strack et al Subjects asked to list 3 positive life evens that recently happened to them or 3 negative events Subjects who listed positive events then reporter higher current happiness amp life satisfaction Assimilation effect when positive information currently in mind produces more positive evaluation of a target Other subjects asked to list 3 positive or negative life events that occurred 5 yrs ago subjects who listed positive events reported lower current happiness and life satisfaction Thursday January 30 2014 Contrast effect when positive info currently in mind serves as standard of comparison and produces more negative evaluation of a target Phone survey called on sunny or cloudy days one condition asked how satisfied they are with their lives Other condition By the way hows the weather down there then asked about life satisfaction Conclusions about survey cognition People construct answers to surveys on the spot using any relevant information Proper interpretation of surveys requires knowledge of the context Not only oblivious mistakes Responses Sets Yeahsaying tendency to agree with all statements nay saying tendency to disagree possible solution reverse direction of some items eg loneliness scale some items like i have a lot of friends and others like i feel isolated from others Social desirability biastendency to respond in any way that makes subjects look good common finding in survey research that on average men report having had significally greater of opposite sex sex partners than women it takes 2 people to have sex Random assignment vs random sampling Assignment assigning subjects to conditions of your experiment such that every subject has an chance of being assigned to any conditions of the study sampling choosing subjects for your study in such a way that every member of the population of interest has chance Population the group of all individuals of interest to researcher eg in political polls usually either all eligible voters or likely voters sample some subset of the population purpose is to estimate response of total population without having to survey everyone sampling frame actual population of individuals or closer from which the sample is drawn eg all indiviudals with listed telephone numbers response rate of people in sample who complete the survey Sampling simple random sampling chance of being selected best most accurate results stratified random sampling divide population in groups then randomly assign from each group random sampling do this to characterize ethnicity group cluster sampling clusters of individuals are identified then clusters are randomly selected All individuals within a selected clusters are sampled ex different middle schools then randomly selected from list of middle schools then go to that middle school and survey everyone in that middle school these three are probability sampling Thursday January 30 2014 haphazard convience sampling survey whoever is convent to sample based on who is available eg psych 7 subject pool not random sample of UCSB students college students in genera less of a problem when goal is not characterizing a population but instead studying the relationship between specific variables experiment with haphazard sample can still have internal validity for that sample and thus still has value A haphazard sample to represent population forecast presidential election provably has no value even for an experiment though haphazard samples raise questions of external validity However some psychological processes expected to be similar for all nonclinical populations Quota sampling sample is chosen to reflect the numerical composition of various subgroups in a population THESE NONPROBABLILITY SAMPLING Sample Size and Sampling Accuracy Representative random sample eg simple random sample can often estimate the true population mean very accurately even with sample size that is very small relative to sie of population mathematical formula for determining confidence interval relies primarily on size of sample not size of overall population sample of 150 people will describe population of 1500 or 15 million with virtually same degree of accuracy Tuesday Missed Class Basic Experimental Designs Posttest Only Design PretestPosttest Repeated Measures Design Matched Pairs Design Experiments on study of how hormones affect behavior and viceversa He removed testes of a rooster stopped crowing no more agessive behavior no more sexual behavior Reimplanted one testis in body cavity and restored normal crowing sexual behavior and aggression reimplanted testis had no nerve connections must have been chemical released into circulatory system that changed behavior Castration in humans long known to have similar effects eg the castrati Thursday January 30 2014 Castrated males experimental animals showed absence of sexual responses to females injection of testosterone into castrated males restored secual behavior to normal levels was there reverse direction of causality as well would sexual behavior mere exposure to females increase testosterone Can exposure to females increase males testosterone First studies to investigate this used posttest only design Purvis amp Haynes Cages with 2 compartments separated by wire mesh barrier males RA 1 female on other side for period of time 2 other side of cage empty males were sacrificed at end of exposure period and blood test levels were determines Posttest Only Design participants male rats RA empty cagetestosterone OR female in cagetestosterone RA 1000 ppl to have monthly bloodlettings for 6 months vs no bloodletting end of 6 months doctor blind to condition rates each person for general health Posttest only design Early studies on testosterone responses to females had to use posttest only designes because had to sacrifice animals to get enough blood for assays couldnt measure DV more than once for example before and after manipulation improved hormone assaus made it possible to draw blood multiple times from same animals without sacrificing them could then use a pretestposttest design PretestPosttest Designs Measure DV before and after a manipulation with RA to experimental groups testosteronepretest Randomfemae testosteroneposttest OR random no femae testosterone posttest Advantages of Pretests For small sample sizes can ensure groups are before the manipulation can measure changes within an individual instead of only across group as a whole experimental manipulation may have different effects depending on baseline valiues can assess effect of a manipulation in spite of mortality effects Detecting Changes in Individuals Say randomly assign to medicine vs control placebo for treatment of some condition using Posttest only design Disadvantages of PreTests Expensive May affect the posttest results Solomon 4Group Design Tests for effects of pretest Groups Posttest only Control Group Posttest only experimental group Pretestcontrol groupposttest 6 Thursday January 30 2014 pretestexperimental groupposttest Repeated Meausres and Bloodletting All individuals undergo 6 months of monthly bloodletting and 6 mon of no bloodletting Dependent measure Doctor health ratings at end of each 6 month period Half subjects bleed first half no bleed first AdvantagesDisadvantages of Repeated Measures Main advantage of repeated measures each subject is his or her own control making it easier to detect the effect of a manipulation with fewer subjects why is sample size important in randomized posttest only experiment Main disadvantage of repeated measure order effects Posttest only design each subject tested once N5 per group No bleed M46 Bleed M40 llO 0OO3 gtgt CDU l Variability within each group is not related to the manipulation Repeated Measure Design Each subject tested twice N5 No bleed M52 Bleed M34 No bleedbleed M18 1 6 5 1 2 4 2 2 3 8 4 4 4 3 1 2 5 5 5 O Variability associated with individual differences is removed bc compare subjects to themselves Matched Pairs Design Subjects are matched on a characteristic related to the dependent variable and then randomly assigned to conditions Technique to ensure that experimental groups are equal before being subjects to experiments manipulation Usually used with small sample sizes Example You want to test hypothesis that computerized tutorials will improve math performance more than written workbooks students 1 hour study period in one or other condition each day for 1 month dependent variable is score on math test at end of month 16 students with low math grades available for study with 8 males and 8 females School wants you to decide which works better so can purchase one or the other what do you do Thursday January 30 2014 Researchers have previous evidence that IQ scores relate to performance on math test IQ scores available at school for each student Researchers first obtain students IQ scores and gender info Cost amp Benefits of Different Designs Repeated Meaures Advantages since compare each individual to themselves decrease effects of subject variability and make effects of independent variable easier to detect Disadvantage order effects Matched Pairs Advantage Similar to repeated measures without having problem of order effects decrease subject variability Disadvantage cost of identifying and measuring matching variable Procedure is worthless if matching variable not related to Dependent measure best case may when DV is the matching variable May be unnecessary with large enough sample size In principle set of potentiality relevant matching variables in infinite Thursday February 13 2014 Order amp Expectancy Effects Repeated measure same subject in both condition might be able to detect participant condition A DV condition BDV condition C DV Acassic Bcountry CJazz Dealing with Order Effect Complete counterbalancing present different conditions in every possible order For 2 conditions controlexperimental only 2 possible orders For every 4 conditions 24 possible orders n Oder Effect Revealed by Counterbalancing Sub 1AB Sub 2 BA X results on a graph how to interpret Order does not make a difference Counterbalancing ensures that order effects affect each experimental condition equLTY Removes confound between order and condition But it doesn39t make order effects go awayCan see whether there are effects of condition above and beyond any order effects If order effects are very strong eg strong practice effect may be best not to use repeated measures design Contrast Effect the experience of one condition produces an opposite effect on the experience of a subsequent condition type of carryover effects ex judge the heaviness of 2 weights one lighter than the other on 110 scale Between subjects Light 6 Heavy 8 Repeated light 1st 6 heavy 10 repeated heavy first light 4 heavy 8 Averages 5 vs 9 In the last two groups that had posttest 8 Thursday January 30 2014 Counterbalancing did not remove contrast effect Increasing time interval between conditions to reduce carryover effects Dealing with Order Effects Complete counterbalancingpresent different conditions in every possible order For 2 conditions controlexperimental only 2 possible orders Latin Square 1 Each condition appears to each ordinal position in 1st rowA is in 1 2nd its in 4 A in 3rd is 2 A in fourth is 3 2 Each condition preecedes and follows each condition one time A B C ZDUOW OWZDU WZDUO D colums are order letters are experiment condition randomly assigned to one of these rows not column 4 conditions how many 24 Test both rules Expectancy Effects as Confounding Variables In the context of an experiment confounding variable is variable that varies along with the independent variable Subjects and experimenter expectations may be variables random assignment caffeinated coffee or decaf cofee DV nervousness ratings subjects know what group they are in Expectations about effects of coffee No expectations about effects of coffee demand characteristics features of a study that reveal hypothesis and condition that subjects are in subjects may alter their responses to be consistent with the hypothesis they think is being tested Placebo Effects effects of expectation of having received a treatment drug trials are usually run with placebo control groups in which participants receive a pill with no active medication participants active medicationsoutcome randomunknown placebo sugar outcome Differenceeffect of drug beyond expectancy 9 Thursday January 30 2014 Video on guy with parkinson Video on placebo pill NIH GRANT 270 participants Phase 1 Placebo Pill placebo pill or active medicine or Sham acupuncture sham acupuncture or acupuncture is all acupuncture a placebo technique 52 athletes with rotator cuff tendinities 1st had symptoms rated by orthopedist before treatment and then 4 weeks after again Twice weekly treatment sessions for 4 weeks with RA to 1 real or 2 sham acupuncture Much stronger evidence for placebo effects if could lie to subjects and tell them they are receiving a treatment even when they are not Cover story tast rating test for different brands of vodka or tonicdrink as much as want to get accurate tast rating Tested hypothesis the loss of control hypothesis that states that small amount of alcohol triggers loss of control in addicts who then cant stop drinking more Result subjects who expected vodka drank significantly more than those who didnt regardless of whether there was any alcohol in their drinks volunteeers had to abstain from alcohol at least 8 hours prior some had shakes and reported alcohol craving men in expectalchol receive tonic condition begin acting intoxicated manner stumbling and such those in expect tonic receive vodka group showed tremor and wanted alcohol Milgramtype situation Subjects elect to deliver electric shocks based on learning mistakes Subjects 1st went through taste rating procedure in which expectancies for vodka intake was crossed with actual intake Then tested whether condition they were in influenced amount of shock they devided to deliver Experimenter expectations Can introduce bias when experimenter knows which condition subject is in Experimenter may treat groups differently Experimenter may record Dependent measures differently Solutions to experimenter bias experimenter blind to condition ran subjects simultaneously for all conditions so all treated same automated recording of dependent measures eg reaction time Experimenters welltrained to treat all subjects same way Research Deisgns Crosssectional Subjects of different ages are studied at one point in time Goal compare age groups on dependent measures IO Thursday January 30 2014 Agecohort is IV measures like attitudes behaviors test performance etc are DV Results usually open to alternative interpretations Cheaper and faster can collect data on age differ in one day that might take 50 yrs in long study common child dev research in which may not expect strong cohort effects in infants across small time spans age and cohort are confounded can39t differentiate dev changes from cohort effects cohort is roughly synonymous with generation groups of ppl who born at roughly same time have experienced common cultural tech and other environmental influences at same agewar depression tv comp etc longitudinal measure same subjects on DV at differ ages Can document withinperson agerelated changes that crosssectional designs cant may reveal cohort effects when compared to results fromm crosssectional flynn effect artifact of sampling measurememnt True increase attributable to changes in enviroment One test of fluid intelligence flynn found that someone who scored in top 10 100 yrs ago would score in bottom 5 today Limitations Selective attritionmortality Drop out Healthier and better educated indic more likely to stay in sample over time Slective attrition makes generalization of age trends more difficult Esp problemativ in studies of older adults Time of measurementhistory effects An agerelated trend may differ by cohort Sequential combines cross sectional and longitudinal Can test both developmental and cohort effects within same design 35 40 45 50 30 35 40 45 25 30 35 40 pilot studies trial run with small of participants Training testing for suspicionreactiving testing strength of manipulations manipulation checks assessing construct validity of IV manipulation Are you manipulating theoretically intended construct eg testing hypothesis that anxiety hurts memory manipulation check tests whether experimental condition actually induces anxiety often performed with surveys at end of study so not give away hypothesis and produce expectancy effects 11 Thursday January 30 2014 sucessful manipulation check eliminates alternative explanation for failed predicitions Types of Manupulationz straightforward usually no deception simply present differ types of stimuli across conditions amp measure their effects Staged create artificial environment ensuring strong manipulation of IV often involves deception and use of confederates research assistant who pose as other subjects or play other roles Asch s 1941 Study of Conformity Asch result 80 conform at least once 98 indicate correct response in private 12 Tuesday February 4 2014 Midterm 2 reading Chapter 6 Qualitative people behaving in natural settings and describing their world in own words Quantitative research tends to focus on specific behaviors questionnaire Naturalistic Observation field work field observation natural environments Goal provide complete and accurate picture of what occurred in the setting Participant observation allows researcher to observe setting from inside nonparticipant is the outsider Systematic observation careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting only interested in a few very specific behaviors Coding Systems Researcher must decide which behavior of interest choose setting and develop a coding system to measure the behaviors Reactivity possibility that the presence of the observer will affect peoples behavior Realiability degree to which measurement reflects true score rather than measurement error rather than measurement error Case Study observational method that provides description of an individual Naturalistic observation valuable in informing us of conditions that are rare or unusual and thus providing unique data about psychological phenomenon such as memory language or social exchange Psychobiography type of case study in which a researcher applies psychological theory to explain the life of an individual usually important historical figure Archival research involves using previously compiled info to answer research ques ons study interesting questions valuable supplement to more traditional data collection methods Content Analysis systematic analysis of existing documents like systematic observation content analysis requires researcher to devise coding systems that raters can use to quantify the info in documents Chapter 7 Survey research employs questionnaires and interviews to ask people to provide info about themselvestheir attitudes and beliefs demographics age gender income martial status Why conduct survey research to study behavior for researchers to study relationships among variables and ways that attitudes and behaviors change over time response set tendency to respond to all questions from particular perspective rather that to provide answers that are directly related to questions social desirability or faking good Conducting Questions to Ask First determine research objectiveswhat heshe wish to know Attitudes and beliefs people evaluate and think about issues Facts amp Demographics ask people to indicate things they know bout themsevesampsituation Behaviors past behaviors or intended future behaviors Tuesday February 4 2014 Question Wording Simplicity Doublebarreled Questions asking 2 things at once Loaded Questions written to lead people to respond in one way Negative Wording avoid phrasing questions with negatives Yeasaying and naysaying when you ask several questions about a topic respondent may employ response set to agree or disagree with all the questions Close vs open ended questions close ended limited of response alternatives are given strutted approach easier to code response alternatives are same for everyone open ended respondents are free to answer in any way they like more time to categorize and code responses more costly useful when researcher needs to know what people are thinking and how they naturally view their world 57 point scale strongly agree to strongly disagree often preferable Graphic rating scale requires mark along a continuous 100millimeter line that is anchored with descriptions at each end Ruler is then placed on the line to obtain score on a scale that ranges from O100 Semantic Differential Scale meausure of the meaning of concepts that the developed by Osgood amp his associates Respondents rate any conceptpersons objects behaviors ideas on series of bipolar adjectives using 7 point scales good bad strong weak active passive Nonverbal scales for kids faces to aid pain labeling response alternatives middle point is neutral Formating Questionnaire attractive and professional consistent scale 5 point scale then no 7 points sequence of questions Written or interview format questions Questionnaireswritten format complete anonymous Personal administration to groups or individuals Mail surveys low response rates Internet Surveysimmediatey sent to researcher Other technologies Interviews interviewer can clarify interview can bias respondents answers by showing approval or disapproval Face to Face expensive and time consuming sample sizesma Telephone largescale surveys less expensive quick Surveys freq study people at one point in time Study changes over time Panel Study same people are surveyed at 2 or more points in time 2wave panel people are surveyed at 2 points in time 3wave panel 3 surveys are conducted sampling participants from a population of interest population composed of all individuals of interest to researcher Confidence interval you can have 95 confidence that true population value lies within this interval around obtained sample result Tuesday February 4 2014 sampling error when you study one sample obtained results may deviate from true population value because of sampling error sample size larger sample size will reduce size of confidence internal large samples are more likely to yield data accurate reflect true population value probablility sampling each member of pop has sepcifiable prob of being chosen want to make precise statements about specific population on basis of results of your survey nonprobability we dont know prob of any particular member of the population being chosen simple random sampling every member of the population has prob of being sample sampling frame the actual population of individuals or clusters from which random sample will be drawn Why convince sampling Quick and cheap CHAPTER 8 Confounding variable variable that varies along with IV confounding occurs when effects of UV and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cant determine which variable is responsible for observed effect internal validity draw conclusions about causal relationships from out data Posttes only design obtain 2 equivalent groups of participants and introduce IV and measure effect of IV on DV first choose participants then assign to 2 gourds selection differences people selected to be in condition cant differ in any systematic way ex cant pick high income for one group and low income for other group must RA control groupex one group get reward one doesn39t IV is measured high internal validity IV caused DV PretestPosttest Design pretest is given before experimental manipulation is introduced design makes it possible to ascertain that the groups were in fact equivalent at beg of experiment pretest necessary whenever possibility that participants will drop out of experiment attrition or mortaityL dropout factor in experiments pretest can be time consuming and awkward to administer Solomon four group design half participants receive only posttest and other half receive pretest and posttest independent groups design or between subjects design participants are RA to various conditions so each participates in only one group comparisons are made between differ groups of participants repeated measures design or within subjects design each participant is measured after receiving each level of IV comparisons are made within same group of participants all same individuals participate in all the groups participants are repeatedly measure on DV after being in each condition of the experiment advantages fewer research participants needed because they participate in all conditions extremely sensitive to finding statistically significant differences between groups order effect the order of presenting treatments affects DV practice or learning effect fatigue effect from first to second condition tired bored or distracted carryover effect 1st treatment to carry over to influence response to 2nd treatment Tuesday February 4 2014 dealing with order effects employ counterbalancing techniques or devise procedure which interval between conditions is long enough to minimize influence of 1st condition on 2nd counterbalancing all possible orders of presentation are included in experiment possible to determine extent which order is influencing results Latin Square limited set of orders constructed to ensure 1 each condition appears at each ordinal position and 2 each condition precedes and follows each condition one time matched pairs design goal match people on participant variable example participants matched pairs of participants R low meaningfulness IV or High meaningfulness V DV recall measure CHAPTER 9 to manipulate IV you have to construct operational def of variable setting the stage supply participants with info necessary for them to provide informed consent to participate straightforward manipulations manipulate IV with relative simplicity by presenting written verb or visual material to participants ex reusing towels at hotels effect of college teacher selfdisclosure 3 Facebook profiles created Staged manipulation stage events during experiment in order to manipulate the IV or event manipulation used to create psychological state in participantsfrustration anger or stimulate some situation that occurs in real world confederate appears to be another participant in experiment but part of the manipulation strong manipulation important in early stages of research concerns external validity of a study second ethics self report measures measure attitudes liking for someone judgements about personality characteristics and other aspects of human thought amp behavior behavioral measures direct observations of behaviors 4x respondents request for h help error on a test engage in one activity rather than another reaction time or how long behavior lasts duration ex adult couples attachment behavior at an airport physiological measures recordings of responses of the body GSRemotiona arrousaEMGmusce tensionEEGbrain cells MRI image of individuals brain structure fMR scan areas of brain while research participant performs physical or cognitive fast sensititivityparticuary important when measuring human performance ceiling effect IV appears to have no effect on DV only because participants quickly reach max performance level opposite problem occurs when task is so difficult that hardly anyone can perform well called floor effect demand characteristics any feature of an experiment might inform participants of the purpose of the study use deception or disguise DV by using unobtrusive measure or placing measure among set of unrelated filler items placebo effect don t know whether improvment was caused by properties of drugs or participants expectations about effect of drug experimenter bias or expectancy effects experimenters usually aware of purpose of study and might develop expectations bout how participants should response minimize expectancy effects experimenter should be well trained and should practice behaving consistently with all participants run all conditions simultaneously experiments behavior is same Tuesday February 4 2014 single blind experiment participant unaware of whether placebo or actual drug is being administered double blind neither participant or experimenter know research proposal background for study explain why research is being done plans pilot study research does trial run with small of participants manipulation check attempt to directly measure whether IV manipulation has intended effect on participant self report tell you if participants are high anxiety group especially useful in pilot study shows manipulation was not effective save expense of running experience debriefingprovide opportunity to learn more about what participants were thinking during experiment analyze and interpret results write report details why conducted research how you obtained participants procedure used what you found CHAPTER 11 developmental researchers face interesting choice in designing studies cross sectional method persons of different ages are studied at one point in time study 20 30 and 40 year olds compare groups on performance more commonly used less expensive and immediate results cohort group of ppl born at same time exposed to same events in society and influenced same cohort effects difference among groups of differ ages may reflect dev age changes longitudinal same group is observed at different points in time as they grow older best way to study how scores at one age are related to another variable at later age expensive and difficult sequential methodbegins with cross sectional method study 55 and 65 yr olds these individuals then studying using longitudinal method with each individual tested at least one more time Tuesday January 21 2014 COMM 89 Goals of theory 1 Describe 2 ExplainGuide understanding 3 Predict 4 Control Looking at hows and whys Leave it to others for what to do What is Comm Theory or representation of communication Set of Constructs definitions propositions based on systematic observations To represent explain or predict communicative action between 2 or more people What does Communication Theory focus on Sourcecommunicatior what thoughts motivation self image Message what content form meaning Receiverlnteractant what role expectations reaction adaptation Channel What is it What different does it make Ex Face to face texting social media while face to face Meaning Where it is How it is created by whom is it shared Relationship what is it Does it matter Theory vs Hypotheses Theory Broadgeneral explanation or representation of phenomenon Applies to variety of situations Hypothesis Guided by theory Tests specific relationship between specific variables Two Ways to Construct Theory 1 Induction Make observation Generalize from observations Create theory 2 Deduction Examine existing theory Derive testable hypothesis Make observations Cyclical Process of Theory Construction Tuesday January 21 2014 Tuesday January 21 2014 Why do we do theories Explain phenomenon Predict What is communication Social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning within their environment 3 Models of Communication 1 Linear Model sourcemessage message receiver Key features Noise Channel 2 Interaction Model Sources experience Feedback receivers experiencefeedback Encoder Decoder Key Features Jeedback Shared meaning Process 3 Transactional Model sources experience feedback receivers experience feedbackgtgtgtshared meaning Encoderamp Decoder DecoderampEncoder Key features Interdependency Shared meaning being negotiated Tuesday January 21 2014 The Big Picture levels paradigms amp MetaTheory What are theories based on What theories think is real important and should be done with knowledge How theories Definelabel what they focus on Two Paradigms that Guide Theory Paradigm world view Way of knowing Framework for creationuse of theory and research If tree falls amp no one is around does it make a sound InterpretiveHumanisticPracticalSubjective Paradigm Reality is created in the minds of the individuals Personal experience rather than agreement from others Your experience Qualitative Free will guides actions ex movie experience inception some get it some don39t SocialscientificObjectivemomotheticpositivistic Paradigm Realitytruth exists in external world separate from individuals interpretations Discover reality objectivity and qualitatively consensus and agreement Deterministic cause and effect not free will Reductionism whoesum of parts Focus only a few parts and at a time break it down Quantitative Tuesday January 21 2014 Ex Research on Aids Interpretive GO to Aids Center Positivistic surveys UCSB social scientific MetaTheory Considerations that guide Theory MetaTheory theorizing about theory Ontology Nature of reality What is real truth and reality Subjective them vs objective you Apply it Name something about your social relationships that is real Are you really in friendship or relationship Does your education really mean that you are educated Does anyone disagree with you Epistemology What counts as knowledge How do we know Qualitative vs Quantitative Apply it Where is their attention How do we know ex picture of 2 boy like each other Ways know someone attracted to you eye contact body movement Axiology What is role of values What should we do with our knowledge Improve society vs simply extend knowledge improve Apply it Why are you theorizing Tuesday January 21 2014 In order to forward knowledge of reality In order to bring about social change Basic or Applied To what degree should theories attempt to be objective vs attempt to influence society Levels lntrapersonal Cognitive process Interpersonal verbal ampnon verbal Group Power group decision Organization Roles and structures Media behavioral and attitudinal use of technology Intercultural rules Attribution Theory We create explanations about people and behaviors ex start lecturing in sunglasses we make assumptions Hungover hurry We act in accordance with our explanations Context intra ampinterpersona Applies to multiple levels and functions eg persuasion Major premises People attempt to determine cause of own and others behavior esp if negative or unusual ex Friend gives 500 you search for explanation People assign causes based on their own perceptions and perceptual style People assign cause systematically based upon 3 interdependent dimensions 1 Location of Cause locus of control Internal persona trait ex loving person Tuesday January 21 2014 External situationa circumstance 2 Stability of a cause Consistent vs unique to this situation or person 3 Controllability Intent Person can vs cant control situation circumstancebehavior ex Dr J steps on Andrews foot Internal clumsy external andrews foot was in way Does she always do it intended Attributions Guide Feelings and Behaviors ex brian got Taent Susan Boyle Initial feelings about behaviors toward her What caused judges attributions to Change ChangeSusans voice New information Can Change with new information attribution change 2 Biases Fundamental Attribution Error Tend to explain others negative actions with internal ex she is lazy SelfServing biases Associate our own actions with internal with external ex we won they lost Research Applications 1 Motivation Increase with use of internal attributes You seem to know math assignments very well You must enjoy reading Rather than external Dad must of helped you ex volunteerism volunteering is internal motive payexternal motive 2 Advertising Target audience attributions productsclaimsseller Influence buying behavior internacreates results 3 Conflict Management Bum Before you turn around put yourself in place Strengths Heuristic triggers learning Practical applications Weakness Falsifiability showing not true Cognitive Dissonance Theory Tuesday January 21 2014 People seek consonanceharmony among cognitive elements knowledge attitudes vales and beliefs Contexts General theory process contexts persuasion function Dynamics of Dissonance and Reduction Relationships about cognitive elements ConsonantHarmonious Nuirrelevant Dissonanceconfliction New infocause dissonance ex relationshipJosh was with Mary the other day Dissonance produces pressure to reduce it ex drink or not drink Magnitude Amount of Dissonance increase with highly important issues mutually exclusive attractive alternative ex getting in comm major Decrease with satisfaction of choice similarity among alternatives Strategies for ReductingCoping with Dissonance ex Video smoking kisim going smoke justify i can quit whenever reduce dissonance Dumped i am too good for her Perceptual Processes that Minimize Dissonance Selective Exposure Reduce exposure to dissonant stimuli Selective Attention Focus attention on consonant stimuli Selective Interpretation Disort info or bring in new belief Selective Retention Tuesday January 21 2014 Remember the consonant forger dissonant ex remembering an ex Tuesday January 21 2014 Strengths internal and external constancy practical utility decision making forced comp initiation Weakness low falsifiability cant show its not correct Linguistic Relativity Sapir amp Whorf Language shapes perception of reality Different linguistic backgrounds produce different realities Realities are different different cultures see things different Contexts All Whorf Not all come to same conclusion unless same perception If something is important to you create language for it What aspects in your life are shaped by language How ex George orwell 1984 Social Judgement Theory Sherif amp Sherif Attitudes Judgements remain stable until challenged Changes in attitudes depend upon initial orientation anchor pointP What are your anchor points Great Valentines Day What did they do your attitude towards it Context interpersonal group organization function persuasion Key Concepts 1 3 Latitudesranges of attitudes 1 Acceptance 2 Rejection IO Tuesday January 21 2014 3 NonCommitment 2EgoInvolvement Identity tied to position about issue ex coffee shop dont like that coffee ex someone criticizes UCSB Decrease latitude of acceptance increase latitude of rejection Not accepting of others opinions 3 Receiver Distorts Sources Position Opinion different than yours fall into Contrast think less like own Assimilation think its more like own ex first meet roommates think they are like me after time not assimilation contrast 4 Persuasion Occurs Latitude of Acceptance is expanded to include desired attitudeopinion Latitude of Acceptance is reinforced or even narrowed is response to attempt to change it Strengths internal consistency logical external consistency actually happening in real world Weakness limited scope how much does it cover 11 Tuesday January 21 2014 Communication Accommodation Theory Howard Giles UCSB Major Premise People Adjust accommodate their comm in relation to each other Context interpersonal intergroup and intercultural PremisesAssumptions A Sociohistorical context to every communication group person A ex different ethnicity or age group B Social CategoriesGroup membership C Expectation for Optimum Accommodation Amount of Accommodation non over under Non Don t adjust anything not changing Maintaining who you are Over Accommodate to the stereotype Talk down to you over simplify elderly Under doesn39t make any effort to accommodate to you Rudellostl Non vs under non is more who you are under is more deliberately intentially not to Direction of Accommodation updownward Up upward someone in higher standing ex an interviewer Downward downward someone in lower standing ex a child D Accommodation indicates attitudes amp social distance between interactants ex twin boys talking to each other E Primary Strategies for Accommodation Convergence more like other Overconvergence converge to stereotype of others Divergence more unlike other Maintenance no change May be viewed as underconvergence eventually as divergence Motivations for Accommodation A Social Approval 12 Tuesday January 21 2014 want to be accepted B lndentification solidarity ex sports team C EfficencyInterpretability exspangHsh D Discourse Management managing communication situation ex visiting mom in retirement as saying bye mom would bring more topics up to keep her there Diverge from that and say bye E Status or Control way you act Statusgraduation day student converge together Ex teacher vs students Teacher maintains status or control F Relationship Maintenance in conflict you diverge more Utility Law enforcement relations ex cop picture with children converging toward children by acting relaxing smiling and bending leg diverging by uniform intergenerational interability reationsampintergender contexts intercultural and interlinguistic relations organizational contexts media messages 13 Thursday January 23 2014 Constructivism Theory Delia Message Focus Premises Based on Personal Construct Theory Based upon our interactions with others we create cognitive categories constructs to help us understand interpret social objects amp events ex filling cabinets educated vs uneducated think in terms of opposites Greater and variety of cognitive constructs leads to greater ability to create more strategic messages designed to accomplish goals by influencing people ex speech to parents if it works its a strategic method Contexts All Key Concepts Personal Construct System Constructs are organized within interpretive frameworks developed over time Simple amp General to Complex amp Specific Based upon culture socialization with others cognitive development amp cognitive ability Children less complexity than adults Adults vary widely in level of complexity What is your capacity of your brain to think in certain terms based on your experience on the world no one has the same Cognitive Complexity ability to distinguish subtle behavioral and characteristics across individuals Make sense of behaviors and characteristics within individuals even when they appear to be inconsistent how you are able to think about things how you craft messages requires high cognitive complexity their motivations how to persuade them etc Perspectivetaking requires cognitive complexity helps us to understand others constrictions of reality young children are not as capable of perspectivetaking not as cognitively complex ex when you want to ask something from parents what parent do you ask you put yourself in the perspective of what parent would give best outcome Asking for money PersonCentered Messages 14 Thursday January 23 2014 Strategic communication that anticipates and is designed to account for individual receivers interpretations and responses requires perspectivetaking ex car lot dealer personalize to each customer 3 stage process Of Message Creation 1 Goal identificationmultiple 2 Planningfrom records in memorywhat worked in the past 3 Actionimplementation Message Design Logic We craft messages according to our cognitive constricts 3 Types of Message Design Logic 1 Expressive Design Logic emote and verbalize own thoughts and feelings ex I m tired 2 Conventional Design Logic Abide by social rules gain social approval ex last piece of pie conventional design would ask anyone if they want the last piece 3 Rhetorical Strategicpersoncentered structure reality and meet multiple goals ex what do i want how do i make other feel okay with giving me what i want ex all the other girls ex boyfriend is about to dump you 1 Dont leave me 2 Ill try better Give me another chance Ill change 3 You re never going to find someone who loves you as much as I do ex giving away puppies to sell 1 Here take this puppy 2 Would you like a puppy 3 Would you help save this puppy this puppy would be great company APPLY IT Condolence Messages Create personcentered condolence messages for a classmate Persuasion Ask a big favor of a roommate Educa on Explain an important aspect of Constructivism 15 Strengths Practical Utility Internal consistenvalid compliancegaining comfort messages organizational effectiveness relationship maintenance External consistentvalid Heruistic Weakness Reliance on role category Questionaire Theories of Conversation CAT EVT CMM SI U RT Expectancy Violations Theory Theorist Judge Burgoon Thursday January 23 2014 Main Premise We notice and make judgments about behavior that violates our expectations Context Interpersonal Proxemics Personal space physical 4 Proxemic ones Intimate O18in Personal space Personal 18in4ft Social 412ft party restaurant Public 12ft walkin on the beach I6 Thursday January 23 2014 3 types of Territories Primary An individuals exclusive domain Secondary Personal connection to an area or object ex seat in a class Public no personal affiliations areas that are open to all people ex the mall EVT Concepts Expenctancies We create expectations with regard to others behavior based upon our life expenences Contexts Cultural norms setting Communicator characteristics Demos personality appearance communication style Relationships similarity liking status Are they someone we like high or low status Violation behavior differs from expectations ex someone give you money punch in public non verbal or verbal Response to vioationprocess Unexpected behavior is noticed cognitive mental alertness physical bodily changes Positive or Negative judgment sought and made Violation valence value we give to situation Cognitive or physical adjustment Evaluate Violation Based On social desirability of behavior size of discrepancy personal preference 17 Thursday January 23 2014 Communicator Reward Valence Depends who it is sums of and attributes of the communicator status looks abilities reward amp punishment especially important when behavior is ambiguous ex grocery store someone nudges purposely your friend its okay stranger its not if you like them high reward valence Video Notebook whose expectations are being violated Ali conductor date For most part its a negative thing Dangerousnot part of the norm Strengths Practical Utility Impression formation doctorpatient interaction interviews cashiers Heuristic scope increasing in breadth Weakness Low external consistency regarding measures of arousal and predictably of vs valence Coordinated Management of Meaning Theory Theorist Pearce and Cronen Context interpersona Premise Communication is the process of creating managing and maintaing social reality thru shared meaning CONCEPTS Meaning are in people not words People create systems of meaning that rely on rules and hierarchical levels based upon own logical force shoulds Similar logical forces lead to similar rules and shared meaning Two Types of Rules Rules of Meaning Constitutive meaning is guided What does this speech act mean in this context Often unconscious Not always source intended 18 Thursday January 23 2014 Rules of Action Regulatory then we act Based upon my interpretation what should i do next Ex Text messages say uhhuh ex certain text meanings Meaning is organized within 6 Hierachical levels each with own set of constitutive and regularity rules Conent Raw Data Words gestures actions ex what does uhhuh mean What should i do based on this meaning Speech Act Nonverbal cues to speakers intention Help us to interpret Agreement Disagreement Paying attention Not paying attention enthusiasm What should i think and do Relational contract understanding of roles between people ex you and your bf uncle mom best friend What should i do and think based upon whose speaking Episodes Communication routinesinteractions with beginnings middles and ends lecture argument studying watching football What should i do and think based on this particular situation Episodes and relational contract can be switched Life scripts self Clusters of pastpresent episodes that define self in relation to the world honest kind risktaker shy What should i think and do that is truly me unique and different about me Cultural patterns Identifiable patters of values communication norms within particular societies comm major from different country stranger in Thailand Religious family i am having dinner with 19 Thursday January 23 2014 What should i think and do based upon their traditions EX Ben stiller arrested found dead friend in car they refer to dead body as friend content level Talking bout killing the person He s talking bout hitch hikers speech act taking it seriously ben not seriously Contract they dont know each other suspect Episodes integration for murder case Self police they have been through this ben he didn39t do anything wrong cultural patterns bible belt where i come from this this isn39t a big deal Rules on each levels what does this mean amp how should i act Coordination creation of meaning Sharing meaning Making sense of the interaction through the use of constitutive rules within some or all levels the hierarchy completeperfect coord shared meaning not that often more likely to share meaning with people that have similar values Partial coord some shared meaning ex meet at 1 friend shows up at 1 10 your meaning of 1 means 1 or 1 01 there meaning means 11 15 No coord different meanings Applications of CMM Mediation agreement Facilitation Marriage and family Counseling increase shared meaning of communication Strengths Internal consistency high explanatory powerbroad scope utility lay applications everyday not academics Weakness Lack heroism with social science 20 Thursday January 23 2014 February 4 2014 Most cognitive theories are more likely to be falsifiability Meta theory need to know meanings of all of them and distinguish among 3 Symbolic lnteractionism Mead Personal identity is shaped by amp guides interaction with others through use of symbols Meaning Symbolized by language Dynamic effect of language Meanings include self concept formed by interacting symbolically with other interpreting interaction three way mirror who am i how are people going to interact mom husband and daughter Thought modifies meaning Mind Self Society Mind intellect Symbolozies perceives thinks anticipates plans strategies Self DualSelf Process 1 impulsive active part of self that behaves unorganized unpredictable act out 2 Me Looking glass self reflects what you imagine another sees Requires taking role of the generalized other Aware of conventions rule SelfFulfilling Prophecy what i say to self ideas of yourself and how you act Pygmalion Effect what i hear others say to me you hear and act how you see yourself depending who you are with how you interact with them 21 Thursday January 23 2014 Society web of social relationships individuals adjust themselves to each other particular others significant others Generalized other viewpoint of large group or culture APPLY IT Creation of institutes that are meaningful to groups or societies Examples Marriage beauty military amp politics SelfConcept Research Boost selfconfidence in children Strengths Heuristic Broad Scope Utility Weakness Utility Qs relnternal Consistency differ between mei and looking glass self vs this or that Too broad Falsifiability Theories of Initial Interaction Once you know someone doesn39t apply Uncertainty Reduction Theory Burger and Calbrese People seek social info in order to understand and predict other s behavior Ex Blind Date Cognitive and Behavior foci 3 Phases in Initial Interaction 1 Entry Hi my name is 2 Personal Talk about yourself and ask questions 3 Exit Duches Motivations for InfoSeeking 22 Thursday January 23 2014 Not mutually exclusive can be motivated by all of these things RewardIncentive Value Anticipation of Future Interaction like talking to your roommate and wanting to know more about future Deviance Finding out how they are different Two Types of Uncertainty 1 Cognitive beliefs amp attitudes 2 Behavioral predictability of actions Strategies for Reducing Uncertainty Passive just observing Active asking someone else Extractive go do research look up on the Facebook take action Interactive tak ask them directly Seven Core Axioms amp21 theorems 1 if verbal comm increases uncertainty decreases 2 If Nonverbal affiliation increases act move same way uncertainty decrease 3 If uncertainty is high info seeking increase 4 If uncertainty is high intimate topic decrease 5 If Uncertainty is high reciprocity my name is my name is my major is my major is increase 6 If similarity is high uncertainty decrease 7 If uncertainty is high like decreases Two additional n established relationships if interact with partners network increases uncertainty decreases f uncertainty is high communication satisfaction is low Sunnafrank claims reducing uncertainty is not primary concern in an initial encounter Maximizing relationship outcome is Internal consistency basic premise is not true How would you rate URT 23 Thursday January 23 2014 1 internal consistency has been questioneddisagreement about basic premise threat 2 external consistency generalizability 3 Flasifiability we could set up situation to see if things are different than what the theory says setting it up so we can prove it wrong 4 Scope what does this cover peoples drive to reduce uncertainty and how they do it 5 Parsimony simplicity simple in that it explains a lot summarizes a vast array of info ex 6 Heuristic spurs research test the theory use context in other contexts 7 Utility practical application ex move in with roommates get to know each other first external test it in variety of situations utility non academic practical in everyday life REVIEW what knows what criteria means and apply it to situation APPLYA SCENARIO TO EACH THEORY SAMPLE QUESTION 1 attribution theory address way in which people attempt to explain the reasons why things happen CMM ability to coordinate meaning with other depends pun all of the above which is speech act compliment insult question all of the above symbolic interaction theory all of the above selective exposure went on a walk to remove dissonance meeting Katy s parents CMM REVIEW SESSION interpersonal shared meaning between two people personal achieved when someone brings their experiences expectancy violations started as just non verbal but later verbal was taken in counter 24 Tuesday February 18 2014 Comm 89 2nd Midterm Criteria amp MetaTheory only thing that is cumulative In criteria what is strongest in each criteria and weakest in each criteria What theory is strongest in parsimony Just on the extremes Meta theories which are value driven Scientific Interpretive think in extremes Theories of Relationsl1ip Relational Theory Social Exchange Theory Social Penetration Theory Relational Theory aka Pragmatics of Human Communication Watzlawick Beavin amp Jackson 1967 Palo Alto Group Standford Major Premise Interpersonal relationships are systems of interaction ex alcohol in families the alcoholic and the family members or Roommate fight effects other roommates Focuses on structure of relationships Pragmatics Effects of Context source receiver on messages and their Meaning Five Axioms 1 One cannot not communicate you re always communicating Intentional Debate Not because of the the source but because of the receiver Ex Sister calling son son said who calls 2 Punctuation defines relationship When did you relationship start There is a beginning and an end of relationship that is defined in a certain way Defines when relationship will change Don39t have to have shared meaning 3 Communications has Digital and Anagogic Aspects Digital how many individual wordsampgestures Bit by bit by bit digital count how many bits there areex i love you Analogical how amp how much emotion emphasisintensity volume accent not how many but instead a continuum or a stream Waving digital but how high i wave is analogical Pictures of facial expressions how they are looking analogical 4 Communication has content amp relational aspects ex cameron close the door content you want door closed relational in charge not respecting him he39s at your command 5Symmetrica and Complementary Communication Types of Messages OneUp Assert Control Onedown acquiesceassentcompy one across neutral anyone have any comments no domination Symmetrical Exchange Oneupone up close the door no you close the door Always have to have an opinion Tuesday February 18 2014 one downone down what do you want to do this weekend I don39t care Complementary Exchanges Oneuponedown close the door you do it Dr J one downoneup what do you want to do lets go see the Lego Movie give dominance to someone and they take it Someone says something funny Oneup One up dominate Noah jumping on ferris wheel Who is tis guy Ally i don t know One down Apply It Family Dynamics dysfunctions Conflict Management Strengths Heuristic scope deep within relationship relationship not individual Falsifiability Weakness Lack parsimony Social Exchange Theory Thibaut ampKelley whats in it for you Major Premise We communicate with others in order to optimize own well being The person you ignore texts or don t hang out with Cognitive theory about interpersonal relationships Assumptions 1 Seek rewards and avoid punishments rewards getting letters or recs network with people build relationships we seek rewards and not punishments punishment getting fired bad relationships negative people Rationalitypeople use logical thinking People are being logical in how they approach their relationships Evaluations of costs and rewards vary Over time Across people Relationships are interdependent What one person does effects other One person not doing well others suffer Key concepts Every communicative relationship involves 1 Costs 2Rewards Social Exchange Voluntary trade of one or more objects or activities between two or people Minimax Principle People seek to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs in relationships How we evaluate Relationships 1 Satisfaction Are we satisfied What if you are in a relationship that you aren t satisfied Comparison Level point above which we are satisfied with relationship outcomes Tuesday February 18 2014 Based on what we think we deserve 2 Stability Comparison Level for Alternatives CLa Point above which relationship is acceptable enough to stay Relationship evaluated Against 1 Alternative Relationship or 2 Doing without Relationship Ex What salary would make you satisfied 60000 or 40000 or 30000 Need more than 30 If we cant find a job right after college maybe we will go back to parents and old job Satisfied with a relationship NO but for now i have nothing else so ill stay in it Abusive relationship The partner stays because don t see better option No alternative and not doing without If Reationshipgt CL comparison level Satisfying ReationshipgtCLa Comparison level for aternativesStabe Look at table in book at table Relational Interaction Behavioral Sequences Series of communicative action designed to achieve a goal 3 Exchange Structure for CostsRewards Direct Reciprocation between 2 people Generalized Reciprocation within social network Pay it forward Give reward they feel good They do something good to someone doesn39t necessarily come back to you Productive Simultaneous cost amp rewards for 2 people ex group project ex lemonade sale someone bring lemons someone bring h20 money is reward Apply it Persuasion conflict management relationship development amp maintenance Strengths Parsimony MORE PARSIMONY STRONG THEORY internal consistencyassumes logic Falsifiability what people seek constitutes rewards Cant prove its false STRONG THEORY externally consistency Heurism Strong theory Utility Scopeindividual level not shared or group process SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORYAltman and Taylor Speaking freely and open was highly valued Major Premise Reciprocal self disclose leads to intimacy SelfDisclosure depends on principle of social exchange Context Relationship Development Tuesday February 18 2014 Social Penetration Process of increasing intimacy in a relationship can be physical emotional ampor intellectual systematic and predictable selfdisclosure is key depentrationprocess decreasing intimacy Nature of SelfDisclosure Purposefully revealing info about self to others Strategic For certain reason or Spontaneous Just randomly Three Dimensions Breadth variety of topics how many different areas of your life volleyball player student etc Depth how deep we go into someones life Time how long how much time have we spent revealing into Reciproca disclosure required for intimacy Self Disclosure is affected by Source who is telling it some people share everything some say nothing Receiver who we are talking with Someone you would disclose a personal aspect of your life but another you wouldn39t Relationship Your doctor or your mother or your best friend or coworker Context public setting maybe less likely to say certain things vs bedroom with your best friend Relational Cost amp Rewards Assess rewards and costs for disclosing More rewardgt more depth breadth time Rewardcost ratio more important early in relationship Reservoir of rewards gt better able to handle conflict Reservoir of costgt relationship in jeopardy Ex Girl sexting sends pic HIGH COST guy might show his friends Reward pleasing guy More reward the more depth and breadth and time Best friend you know what they like how to push their buttons ect reward is high reward and cost is more important and monitored in the beginning of a relationship Onion Analogy Public Image Outer layer Superficial info available to everyone Ex Put on Linkd account Everyone can know Inner Layers More private info ex financial Core Layers More vulnerable and costs 4 Tuesday February 18 2014 ex DUI drug history Don t want to share with the world Four Stages of Relational Development 1 Orientation Reveal small parts of self often in public superficial comm follow social desirability amp appropriateness norms share publicly 2 Exploratory Affective Exchange Explore if you like each other and want to continue getting to know each other Aspects of personality emerge Some private aspects become public Spontaneous Comm Nonverbal Comm increases casual acquaintances new friends few relationships pass this stage 3 Affective Exchange Spontaneous comfortable comm personal idioms used inside jokes Both positive and negative exchanges Close friends and intimate partners 4 Stable Exchange Corecore comm complete openess and spontaneity highly intimate and synchronized predict one anthers behavior fewer misinterpretation few relationships ever reach this stage ex your parents twin siblings maybe your best friends VERY RARE Depenetration amp Dissolution Transgression Violation of rules practices amp expectations Implicit or explicit rules Options repair redefine deescalate Video Clip Breakfast Club Getting to know each other What stage are they in deep disclosure is it rewarding at first then topic shifts the cost becomes high its no longer safe nature of self disclosure changes Psych 105 What is developmental psychology A science involving description and explanation of changes over time in the structure thought or behavior of person emotion personality language gender understanding social world Basic Questions of Developmental Psychology Describing and Explaining Development Theme 1 Biology amp Environment Nature vs Nurture Biology Genes received from our parents which might regulate growth of psychological abilities Environment Everything else Can be psychical as well as social Where does knowledge come from Environment Knowledge learned from experience The things we know come through our senses via learning from environment BLANK SLATE Genes Knowledge is coded for in genes The things we know mature or are triggered as development proceeds CORE KNOWLEDGE Theme 2 General vs Specialized Learning Theories emphasize learning from environment suggest limited initial structure philosophical trad tabula ras blank slate John Locke 16321704 Common viewpoint in psych science and modern pop culture Walt Disney Baby mindblank book lst years written on it If slate is initially blank then the learning mechanisms required must be GENERAL PURPOSE Pavlovs classical conditioning as envisioned on the of ce Give altoid after the sound OR Dog salivate to bell learning Skinners Operant Conditioning Bi g Bang Theory Associate action with positive outcome Pi gent Blank Slate Theory General Purpose Learning Problems about s people obj ects General Purpose Learning Actions learning even in non humans often specialized rather than general Learning even in non human often specialized rather than general Food Nausea Taste Adversion Tone Nausea No learning tone shock place aversion Food shock no learning Alt to general purpose learning Many specialized learning mechanisms Features f Core Knowledge theories SlateNot blank Pre exi sting structure in infants mind many not be learned Early non learned core knowledge Specialized in some important domains imp from evolutionary past Skelton bare bones understanding rather than full ashed out adult like competence Provides foundation that guides later learning from experience Even when there is core knowledge the env is still required ex what explains where our fear of heights comes from Infants dont need to experience falling from high surface to develop fear BUT fear of heights is not present at birth novice crawlers will cross deep side of visual cliff after months experience with crawling infants become reluctant to cross pretty sure core knowledge exists Even when core knowledge environment is still required ex what explains our expertise at face recognition infants have unlearned pref for faces unleashed bias to attempt to faces this will lead to lots of experience with faves expertise with faces develops as result of core knowledge and experience together Relation of themes to Cross Cultural Evidence Core knowledge Specialized tlearning theories imply a narrower range of outcomes in diff environments Blank late general purpose learning theories imply possibility of widely diff outcomes in diff environments ex culture and language language learning core knowledge learning language blank slate GoalsBene ts of Research in Child Development Early detection of developmental delay disorder Early life experiences important for later outcomesintervention promoting most ef cient ways for children to learn Goals of Psychological Research 1 descrive 2 predict 3 determine 4 explain The language learning core knowledge and environment human language can be broken down into simple rules Skinner blank slate learning mechanism of association word like babble reinforced by adult speakers blabbing becomes words worlds reinforced words become sentenced gradual shaping of response reward primitive sentences then more elaborate sentences creation of new language structures according to ruleswhen applied to novel words they cannot be based on learning from direct experience Overgeneralizin g Over application Sometimes they apply rules too much over generalize Pinker amp Alda over use of rules arguments against blank slate theories Lead to rst core knowledge theories for language development Chomsky argued all children have Language Acquisition Device built in riles to get learning off the ground built in pattern of development domain speci c Universal Pattern of Development every human culture has at least one language same stage like pattern of development seen in all human cultures BUT DONT FORGET even With core knowledge environment still play critical roles language you learn depends on What exposed to language acquisition requires exposure to language and the timing of language exposure is critical Timing of experience is critical 1 evidence from isolated children 1 Genie discovered at age 13 acquired Words but never able to make grammatical sentences 2 Isabelle Escaped imprisonment at age 65 Within 18 months normal lang for her age Evidence that timing of language exposure is critical Learning a second language english grammar scores or immigrants to US vs age on arrival in US individuals Who arrived When older or When adults perform less Well PRECURSORS TO Language Acquisition Methods attention measure can be used in auditory domain as Well as visual domain rate of sucking on paci er used as measure of attentivenessinterest Infants prefer to listen to native language neWborn babies prefer to listen to passage read in native language over same passage read by same reader in diff lang this preference probably results from hearing rhythmic aspects of language prenatally Younger infants discriminate all speech sounds older infants tune in their own language Younger infants can hear the speech sound contrast of all languages suggest that experience With speech sounds that are used in native language are maintained at expense of sounds no usedexperienced LECTURE JANUARY 23 2013 Adults prepare infants for language learning Infant Directed Speech Exaggeration Higher voice Extreme changes in intonation longer pauses more repititions Slower amp clearer Exaggerated facial expressions Infants prefer to listen to IDS Infants learn language quicker when they hear IDS Infants focus on melody of utterances to glean meaning Stages in language development 9 months Babble 12 months1 word 18 months 2 word 36 monthscomplex grammar Prior to babbling 812 months Speech songs from native language Sounds comprised of consonant followed by vowel Ba ba ba ga ga ga Issue Language amp Speech Is speech necessary for language Test case Deaf infants exposed to sign language babble manually First Words 1213 months but variability in exact age First 50 or so words have same everywhere mostly nouns Mom dad siblings pets common objects Very few function words and at the of etc Problem with word learning by association too many possible meanings Solving the gavagai problem children cannot be complete blank slates they must have some initial assumptions about what words are likely to mean But what about assumptions 1 whole object assumption 1 assume word is label for a whole object 2 mutual exclusivity assumption 1 assume objects have only ONE label 3 Non verbal cues from knowledgeable speaker 1 eye gaze toddlers will learn name for a hidden object based on where a person is looking when they name a word 2 emotional cues toddlers can track and remember emotional displays that signal word meaning Two word stage telegraphic speech 1824 months simple sentences abbreviated still no function words Eg hurt knee Daddy Sleep Again even though infants are not yet producing complex sentences they are sensitive to grammar Word orderings Remember cross modal selective looking method ex big bird tickling cookie monster cookie monster tickling big bird moving beyond 2 Word stage is largely a matter of incorporating gradually more function Words to ll out and arranging Words into more complex sentences using more clauses etc eat cookie to i eat ing cookie s to Large individual differences in progression from 2 Word state to more complex speech Note ORDER xed so still consistent With stage development
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