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Stat 110

by: Kayla Ann Berube

Stat 110 Stat 110

Marketplace > Math > Stat 110 > Stat 110
Kayla Ann Berube

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About this Document

Notes for chapters 1 and 2
Introduction to Statistical Reasoning
Wilma Sims
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Ann Berube on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Stat 110 at a university taught by Wilma Sims in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
Statistics is the science of collecting, classifying, presenting and interpreting data. Where Does Data Come From? •   Individuals o   The objects described by a set of data. The objects can be people, animals or things. •   Variable o   Any characteristic of an individual. Variables can take different values for different individuals. Data Sources •   Observational Study o   Observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence the responses. o   The purpose of an observational study is to describe some group/situation. •   Sample Survey o   A sample survey is a type of observational study in which a sample is selected and asked to respond to questions. o   i.e. public opinion polls, pre-election polls, TV ratings •   Experiment o   Experiments deliberately impose some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses. o   The purpose of an experiment is to study whether the treatment causes a change in the response. o   i.e. In medical studies, patients are given drugs at various dosage levels to study effectiveness. Definitions •   Population o   The entire group of individuals about which we want information. •   Sample o   A part of the population from which we actually collect information. o   A sample is used to draw conclusions about the population. •   Census o   A sample survey that attempts to include the entire population in the sample. Key Terms •   Individuals and Variable •   Population and Sample Collecting Data •   We want to select a sample from the population. •   We want the objects in the sample to be representative of the population. Samples, Good and Bad •   Biased Sampling Design o   A design that systematically favors certain outcomes. •   Sampling designs that are often biased o   Convenience Sampling §   Selects whichever individuals are easiest to reach §   Interviewer makes the choice o   Voluntary Response Sampling §   Chooses itself by responding to a general appeal §   People make the choice. •   Personal choice produces bias. Simple Random Sample (SRS) •   Simple Random Sample of size ‘n’ o   Consists of ‘n’ individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of n individuals has an equal chance to be •   A sample is selected using random digits. o   Random digits §   A long string of the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 with these two properties: 1.   Each entry is equally likely to be any of the digits 0 – 9 2.   The entries are independent of each other. That is, knowledge of one part of the table gives no information about any other part. •   Choosing an SRS o   Step 1 – Label §   Assign a numerical label to every individual in a population. All labels must have the same number of digits. §   Labels can be assigned in any manner … i.e. alphabetical order o   Step 2 – Table §   Use the random number table to select labels at random.


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