NHM 101- Week 1 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Cutler on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Overview of Nutrition Monday, January 4, 2016 4:29 PM I. Nutrition, Food, and Diet a. Nutrition i. The science of nutrients in food and their actions within the body. ii. Chemical substances for foods, and required for normal function in the body iii. Nutrients actions within the body include ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion. iv. Also, refers to human behaviors related to food and eating (dieting, exercise) v. Nutrition is both a pure science and a social science b. Diet i. The Foods and beverages a person eats. ii. Food 1) Products from plants and animals 2) When taken into the body, yield energy and nutrients for growth and maintenance. 3) Many factors influence someone's food choices, such as…. a) Preferences b) Habit c) Culture and ethnicity d) Social interactions e) Availability and convenience f) Income g) Positive and negative association with food. h) Emotions i) Some people cannot eat when they are emotionally upset, others eat when depressed. i) Values j) Body weight and image k) Nutrition and Health benefits i) Foods that provide health benefits are called functional foods c. Nutrients and Energy i. Nutrients 1) Chemical substances obtained from food 2) The ongoing growth, maintenance, and repair of the body's tissues depend on the energy and the nutrients received from foods. ii. Energy 1) Energy in food is chemical energy No single food supplies all the nutrients the body needs to function. 60% of body weight is water generally. ○ ○ 20-25 pounds fats (women generally have more) for an average person. I. Categories of nutrients 1) Macronutrients- required by the body in large amounts a) Carbohydrates b) Proteins i) Major function: provide structural material to the body c) Lipids d) Water (not generally talked about) >Energy-yielding nutrients 2) Micronutrients: required in small amounts a) Vitamins b) Minerals >Do not provide energy >However, some are required for the energy release process >Participate in numerous other activities throughout the body 3) Organic nutrients: contain the element carbon in structure (means literally "alive") a) Carbohydrates b) Lipids c) Proteins NHM 101 Page 1 c) Proteins d) Vitamins 4) Inorganic nutrients: don’t contain carbon a) Minerals (sodium) b) Water 5) Essential Nutrients: nutrients that the body either doesn’t make or doesn’t make enough of. a) Must get more these nutrients from food to meet bodies needs II. Measuring Energy in Food □ Calories are units used to measure energy □ 1 calorie = energy required to raise 1g water by 1 degree Celsius □ Food energy is measured in kilocalories (Kcals) 1kcal=1000 calories= 1 C □ Calories are useful in comparing the energy available from different foods when we are deciding what food to eat III. Energy from food 1) Carbohydrates= 4kcal/gm 2) Proteins= 4kcal/gm 3) Lipids (fats)= 9kcal/gm (higher energy density) >Example 10 grams of carbs will provide 40 kcals 4) Alcohol= 7kcal/gm a) Alcohol contributes energy but is not considered a nutrient because not required by the body IV. Energy Density vs. Nutrient Density 1) Energy density a) Measure of the energy of a food provides, relative to the weight of the food. b) Foods with high energy density are typically unhealthy foods and vice versa. 2) Nutrient density a) Measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the weight of the food >For Healthy foods: pick a high nutrient density and low energy density V. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 1) A collection of four reference values related to intake of nutrients: a) Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) i) The average daily amount of a nutrient that is sufficient for half of the population ii) Only used to assess nutrient adequacy of populations b) Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) i) Daily amount of nutrient needed to meet the requirements of almost all healthy individuals (about ~98% of the population) ii) Serve as goal intake for individuals c) Adequate Intake (AI) i) Sufficient scientific evidence is not available to determine RDA ii) Based on estimates of nutrient intake by a group of apparently healthy people that are assumed to be adequate d) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) i) The maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people ii) Beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effect One. Such as: too much of vitamin A causes liver damage 2) Used for planning and assessing diets 3) For healthy people a) DRIs don’t apply to people with certain conditions, only to healthy people. b) Nutrient goals should be met with food, not supplements c) Recommendations apply to average daily intakes i) You may not meet the nutrient recommendations everyday VI. Establishing Energy Recommendations 1) Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) a) The average dietary energy intake (kcal per day) that will maintain balance in a person who has a healthy body weight and level of physical activity NHM 101 Page 2 person who has a healthy body weight and level of physical activity 2) Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) a) Ranges of intakes for energy- yielding nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. i) 45-65% kcal from carbohydrate ii) 20-35% kcal from fat iii) 10-35% kcal from protein VII. Nutrition Assessment 1) Malnutrition a) When a deficiency or excess is significant over time, the person may display the symptoms of malnutrition 2) Undernutrition a) Deficient energy or nutrients 3) Overnutrition a) Excess energy or nutrients. Effects: i) Obesity ii) Diabetes iii) Heart disease 4) Nutrition assessment of individuals a) Historical information b) Anthropometric measurements (Anthropo=human, metric=measuring) i) Such as height and weight and comparing that to the normal historical info. c) Physical examinations d) Laboratory tests Primary deficiency- a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient Secondary deficiency- a nutrient deficiency cause by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys the nutrient. Subclinical deficiency- a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared. NHM 101 Page 3
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