PY253, Week 1 Notes
PY253, Week 1 Notes PY253
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This 59 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Atkinson on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY253 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dr. Trost in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Brain Mind and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Introduction to Biopsychology PY 253-2C: Brain, Mind and Behavior Zina Trost, PhD Today’s Class 1) Introductions and some career counseling 2) Syllabus and some other things 3) Scientific Method 4) Introduction to Brain, Mind, & Behavior Today’s Class (1) Introductions and some career counseling About your Professor aka Career Counseling • Overview: Clinical Health Psychologist • Research: How people experience and respond to pain, injury and disability– interpersonal and intrapersonal perspective… and also VR interventions • Education • USSR: Back in the USSR (Preschool and 1st = 2 years) • Somewhere in Brooklyn (3rdish through 12 = 13 years) • New York City: Fordham University (BA = 4 years) • Athens, Ohio: Ohio University (MA + PhD = 5 years) • Seattle, WA: UW Medical Center (Residency/Internship = 1 year) • Montreal, Quebec: McGill University, (Postdoc = 2 years) • Ghent, Belgium: University of Ghent My work is good for… • Students who want to go into medical professions • Students who want to go into helping professions (Psychology, Counseling) • Basically: Any Graduate School. Like, any. OMG: Research is so important! Research Opportunities: ** Your Professors ** http://www.uab.edu/undergraduateresearch/research-opportunities Who are You? • New to this class? Taken this class before? • Ma1) Syllabus • Tr2) Research Opportunitieslass….alive? 3) Scientific Method 4) Introduction to Brain, Mind, & Behavior We will all love Biopsychology by the end! Today’s Class (2) THE SYLLABUS Lets go over it. First Extra Credit (1 point) Fill out the introductory sheet (under Assignments in CANVAS). Hand it (ON PAPER!) in by beginning of class on January 21st. AND NOW… How (NOT) to communicate with your professors: That important information… In email and I amnot: in person… Ms. Mrs. Hey, I am : Dr. Professor Real Example 1: I missed the quiz ... im so sorry ive been trying soooo hard to be on time and do ALL of my work .. Im not asking for u to do anything for me because i was supposed to be on top of my stuff... i work and get off so late... i can NOT believe i missed it. I am so sorry but will finish all my tests and quizzes. Have a good weekend and please let me know it there is ANYTHING i can do. Tx you !! Real Example 2: hey, I have a quick question regarding the format of the final pape. Are there any font requirements that you want. Just want to get all the little details right. This is what I want Real Example 3: Hi D. Trost, I would like to know my grade. I enjoyed this class even though I did not talk much. Have a good summer! Thank you, Real Polite Student How to do well in this class. ATTEND CLASS. REALLY . THIS IS REALLY IMPORTAN. → Exams draw on things primarily covered in class. → Things not in book will be covered or a different perspective will be provided. → Quizzes may be on things covered in class → Extra credit will often be class-based → Information on the slides may not Be warned: Less and less info. GET SOMEONE’S CONTACT INFO. → Get notes if miss class. I will not meet with you to cover missed info. → Compare notes before the test. Maybe one of you missed something. READ THE BOOK. → Exams may include material not explicitly covered in class. → Book lets you solidify information. Lets get started. Today’s Class (3) THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Basis for All: The Scientific Method THE STEPS: 1) Formulatea question. What? Why? Clearest version of your question? (Critical!) ……….. Important factors here? (What did you “control for”?) 2) Formulatea hypothesis. Poses the question in testable form Educated guess What do you expect? Why do you expect this? A hypothesis is not a question. It is a predictive statement The Basis for All: The Scientific Method 3) Test/Experiment How you test your hypothesis Need to design an experiment/study. Need data. Consider: What needs to be controlled for (those important factors). 4) Analysis What did you find? What does it mean? Can you conclude anything? TEST HYPOTHESES (Hello, Stats!), not prove them The Basis for All: The Scientific Method 5) Replication Replicate your own work? Can others? Will it stand the test of time? → Is it GENERALIZABLE → Is it GENERATIVE → Is it based on SOLID RATIONALE or THEORY? Did you CONTROL for (take into account) all the important variables? Why did I just talk about the Scientific Method? Goals of This Class → General knowledge of biopsychology, neuroscience → Critical appraisal of scientific findings Today’s Class (4) INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B What is Biopsychology? Biopsychology = The study of the biology of behavior, so…. This is not a biology class This is a psychology class AKA How does your brain (+ the rest of your nervous system) and mind contribute to your behavior? “Behavior” = what we perceive, feel, think, say, and do. What makes you tick? We are young INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B First, some history Thank you, Mr . Hebb • Donald Hebb Canadian Psychologist • 1949:“The Organization of Behavior” • All of your sensations and perceptions (and behaviors) (complex stuff!) can be attributed to brain activity • Used eclectic approach: study of animals, humans, case studies, observations The Relationship between Disciplines FIRST: Biopsychology is part of Neuroscience SECOND: Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system THIRD: Neuroscienceincludes many approaches to studying the nervous system → Neuroanatomy → Neurochemistry → Neuroendocrinology → Neuropathology → Neuropharmacology → Neurophysiology FOURTH: Biopsychologyis a disciplineof neuroscience that integratesthese various approaches to studythe…. biology of behavior. The Relationship between Disciplines Biopsychologists are neuroscientists who bring to the table: • Knowledge of behavior • Methods of behavioral research Ultimate purpose of the nervous system…. PRODUCE AN CONTROL BEHAVIOR! Approaches to studying the nervous system • Neuroanatomy: structure/organization of nervous system. • Neurochemistry: chemical basis of neural activity. • Neuroendocrinology: interaction of nervous system & endocrine system. • Neuropathology: nervous system disorders. • Neuropharmacology: effect of drugs on neural activity. • Neurophysiology: functions & activities of the nervous system. How do we do Research in Biopsych? THREE MAIN DISTINCTIONS in STUDIES: 1) Human / Nonhuman Subjects 2) Experiments / Nonexperiments 3) Pure / Applied Research INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B Kinds of Studies 1. Human / Nonhuman (Animal) Subjects HUMAN AND NONHUMAN Comparative Science / Approach Human and non-human subjects Similarities and Differences Pros and Cons HUMAN AND NONHUMAN HUMANS! Pros Cons → Follow directions much easie→ Easier to confound → Can talk → Somewhat unreliable → Can cost less → Sometimes too complex! → Have a human brain! HUMAN AND NONHUMAN NON-HUMANS! Pros Cons → Sometimes hard to generalize → Simpler brains, behaviors → More expensive (clean cages!) → Evolutionary continuity → More experimental options → Ethical concerns (more or less?) INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B Kinds of Studies 2. Experimental / Nonexperimental EXPERIMENTS Cause-and-effect relationships. Independent variables Independent variable Dependent variable Dependent variables Confounding variables → Findings difficult to interpret → How much of the effect caused by the independent variable vs. confounded variable? → CONTROL → Difficult in real life EXPERIMENTS Multiple Designs • Between-subjects design • Within-subjects design EXPERIMENTS: BETWEEN SUBJECTS Different groups are tested and compared Each group gets a single treatment Mood Rating Generally have one “control” group (0-100) R Example: Research Question: How does Participants R watching a MileyCyrus video vs. Adele Mood Rating video influence your mood? (0-100) IV: MileyCyrus Video vs. Adele video R DV: Mood(i.e.,Sad 0 - Happy100) Mood Rating Control: Blank Screen Control (0-100) PAUSE: “CONTROL ” 1. CONTROL CONFOUNDING VARIABLES:Important factors that you measure and take into account statistically. 2. CONTROL COUNFOUNDING VARIABLES:Factors you want to keep the same across conditions 3. CONTROL: A condition (usually a baseline) to which you compare another condition (or conditions) in an experiment EXPERIMENTS: WITHIN Anytime you measure the DV more than once Anytime participants get exposed to the IV or different conditions more than once COUNTERBALANCE EXPERIMENTS: Review Independent variable → The difference between the conditions → The variable that you are manipulating Dependent variable → The variable that you are measuring/testing Confounding variable → An unintended variable that messes things up EXPERIMENTS: Example Hypothesis: Men wear bigger shoes than women IV: Sex of the subject DV: Shoe size Confounding variable? Foot size! (Men tend to be bigger than women) NONEXPERIMENTS: Why do they exist? Ethics? Reality? NONEXPERIMENTS: Quasiexperimental Real World: Subjects assign themselves Example: → 10 Years of alcohol intake da→ly → 10 Years of no alcohol intake daily → What is the shortcoming? → Cannot control for confounding variables → WHY? → So: No cause → effect relationship NONEXPERIMENTS: Case Study SINGLE SUBJECT Generally very in-depth: Multiple tests can be administered What is the shortcoming? GENERALIZABILITY INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B Kinds of Studies 2. Pure / Applied PURE RESEARCH vs. APPLIED RESEARCH Pure Research → Motivated by curiosity → “Academic” research → Basic building blocks that may eventually be applied… Applied Research → Intended to improve human life → Use basic research to address real issues → What’s the motivation here? INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B Divisions of Biopsychology DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY → Physiological Psychology → Psychopharmacology → Neuropsychology → Psychophysiology → Cognitive Neuroscience → Comparative Psychology DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Physiological Psychology Physiological Psychology → Directly affect the nervous system to see effects on behavior → Usually done in animals “Pure” research: No immediate application DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Psychopharmacology Psychopharmacology • Drugs Brain Behavior Both “Pure” and “Applied” • Example: development of therapeutic drugs • Drug abuse • Studies in both animals and humans DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Neuropsychology Neuropsychology → Brain damage and neurological deficits Psychological/Behavioral Effects → Can’t be an experiment → Quasiexperiments or Case studies →The most applied… to help people Examples: → H.M. → Phineas Gage DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Psychophysiology Psychophysiology → Physiological activity Psychological processes → Human subjects; so non-invasive, scalp. • BRAIN ACTIVITY: EEG to measure brain activity when performing a task • Heart Rate • Pupil Dilation DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Cognitive Neuroscience CognitiveNeuroscience Study of the neural basis of cognition/cognitive processes • Higher order processing, intelligence, perception, attention, learning Often human subjects, so noninvasive, so… Major Methods: Functional brain imaging techniques when person is doing some kind of cognitive activity (living brain!) • Specific Population DIVISIONS OF BIOPSYCHOLOGY: Comparative Psychology Comparative Psychology → Focuses on the biology of behavior as opposed to the neural basis of behavior → Compares the behavior of different species to understand the development and adaptiveness of behavior (e.g., pain) → Observation in the lab, natural environments Components of other disciplines → Evolutionary psychology → Behavioral genetics INTRODUCTION TO B, M, & B Well, they all work together: Converging operations CONVERGING OPERATIONS: Korsakoff’s Syndrome th • First identified in 19 century by Russian doctor • Found severe memory loss in patients with history of alcoholism • Thought it was due to neurotoxic effects of alcohol CONVERGING OPERATIONS: Korsakoff’s Syndrome Working Together: 1. Case studies: Alcoholics 2. Quasi-experiments: Alcoholics vs. Malnourished nonalcoholic folks 3. Comparative Angle: Thiamine deficient and control rats. So: It’s a Thiaminedeficiency! (Vitamin B1) IN GENERAL: Study of Memory 1. Physiological Psychology Surgically removed brain areas of rats (hippocampus) to determine their role in memory 2. Psychopharmacology Administered drugs to rats/humans to improve memory (e.g., Alzheimer’s) 3. Neuropsychology Found that alcohol-induced brain damage impaired memory 4. Psychophysiology Found autonomic activity active when people recognize faces (even if they say they don’t) 5. Cognitive Neuroscience Used imaging techniques to see how the brain responds when people perform memory tasks 6. Comparative Psychology Found that some birds that cache seeds have more developed brain areas (hippocampus) CRITICAL THINKING • Important to be critical of any finding • Important to know how an experiment was conducted before drawing any conclusions about the results SOOOOOOOOO…………………
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