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Social Psychology 2310 Week 1 Notes

by: Allie Broghammer

Social Psychology 2310 Week 1 Notes Psych 2310

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > Psych 2310 > Social Psychology 2310 Week 1 Notes
Allie Broghammer
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About this Document

Introduction to Methodology
social psychology
Laura Scherer
Class Notes
social psychology, Psychology, methodology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allie Broghammer on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2310 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Laura Scherer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see social psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
Social Psychology: Methodology Dr. Laura D. SchereThursday 1/21/16 ▯ “…is the biggest difference between social psychology and non-psych fields” ▯ ▯ The Scientific Method  Step 1 o Start with a theory: an integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events.  A good theory summarizes many observations and makes clear predictions  Step 2 o Form a hypothesis: a statement that describes a relationship between events. Often hypothesis’s are derived from a theory.  Step 3 o Operationalize (Define your variables in a way that is measurable) your research question.  Step 4 o Define your independent variable (IV) The thing that you think will influence your outcome.  IV= presence or absence of other people  Operationalization: kids will either reel in lines together or alone.  This IV has two levels: together and alone.  Step 5 o Define your dependent variable (DV) the thing you expect will be influenced by the IV  Outcome depends on independent variable  DV= performance  Operationalize: how fast kid reels in line  Step 6 o Decide whether you want your study to be a within-subjects design or between-subjects design.  Within-subjects: all participants get all levels of your IV  Between-subjects: participants are divided into groups  Each group gets one level of your IV  ½ in a group  ½ alone o When to use these designs  Problems with within-subjects design  Practice effects  Fatigue effects  Order effects  Advantages of within-subjects  Can compare an individuals performance in one condition and another condition  Don’t need as many participants  Step 7 o Randomly select a sample from a population  If we want to generalize the US population then we must select US citizens randomly.  Step 8 o Randomly assign participants to condition  If you have different experimental groups (i.e. a between subjects design) then you must randomly assign participants to these groups. ▯ A TRUE EXPERIMENT  “All else being equal…”  Everything about different conditions should be the same, except for the levels of the independent variables.  People should be equivalent (due to random assignment)  Environment should be tightly controlled to reduce the possibility of confounds ▯ Advantages of True Experiments  Can establish causality  Can rule out third variables (anything else that could explain your results) ▯ Disadvantages of True Experiments  I can’t make conclusions that go beyond my narrow experiment  Experiments are necessarily interactive- constantly changing and progressing. ▯ Alternatives to True Experiments Correlational Research – is what you do when we cant randomly assign participants to conditions. o Ex: cant assign someone to have cancer or not, gender, religion, rich or poor etc.  Correlational studies cannot establish causality o 2 reasons  Direction of causality, children with high self esteem also tend to have high academic achievement  Does self esteem cause kids to do better in school? Or does doing well in school cause kids to have higher self esteem?  3 variable problem  Maybe intelligence and family status lead to both academic achievement and high self esteem  Ex: crime is positively correlated with ice cream sales. ▯ ▯


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