BIOL 100 D, Week one
BIOL 100 D, Week one Biol 1000
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anneka sundell on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1000 at Fort Hays State University taught by Mr. Jeff Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Fort Hays State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
BIOL 100D 1 Human Biology ~Properties of Life~ 1. Energy: the capacity to do work The ultimate energy source is the Sun Solar Energy is transformed into chemical energy Ex. Carbs/ATP/protein 2. Metabolism: chemical reactions that occur in the cell 3. Homeostasis: stable set of internal conditions Everything is working as it should in the body Humans sweat/ shiver to maintain body temperature 4. Response to Stimulus: interacting with surroundings Grabbing something hot and letting it go by reflex 5. Reproduce: life comes from life Every organism can reproduce (make another life itself) Either Sexually or Asexually 6. Develop: organisms grow 7. Adapt: modifications that make organisms suited to a way of life and surroundings Ex. Moles have shovel like claws and small eyes ~Domains ~ 1. Based on DNA and Proteins, there are 3 types of domains 1. Bacteria E. coli, staphylococcus BIOL 100D 2 “U Bacteria” 2. Archaea: live in extreme environments “Archaea Bacteria” More closely related to humans Not pathogenic 3. Eukarya: Everything with a nucleus in its cells Kingdoms 1. Protist: (Protista) unicellular to a few multicellular organisms 2. Plants: (Plantae)Multicellular photosynthesis 3. Animals: (Animalia)multicellular organisms that ingest their foods 4. Fungi: molds and mushrooms that decompose dead organisms. Family relation is closer than Bacteria with anything Tree of Life ~Biological Hierarchy~ 1. Domain (Dear) Most Inclusive (includes many things) 2. Kingdom (King) BIOL 100D 3 3. Phylum (Philip) 4. Class (Came) 5. Order (Over) 6. Family (For) 7. Genus (Great) 8. Species (Sex) Least Inclusive (includes one thing) How to Remember ~Diversity of Life~ Organisms are grouped by similarities Two Areas of biology help group: 1. Taxonomy: Identify and name a. “Homo Sapiens” 2. Systematics: Classify based on evolutional relationships a. By “Family Tree” or DNA evidence ~Scientific Naming~ Every Living thing has a twopart name. Binomial Name: First part: Genus Second part: Specific epithet 1. Ex Homo Sapiens ~Evolution~ BIOL 100D 4 All living organisms can trace back t a single living organism Evolution: the change in allele frequencies over time Allele: one type of gene Explains unity and diversity of life ~Natural Selection~ Evolution occurs by natural selection 1. Charles Darwin 2. Alfred Wallace Two key players in Natural Selection and evolution Process that results in adaptation: 1. Individuals in a population vary 2. Variation is heritable Adaptation occurs 3. More offspring produced than survive ~Levels or Organization~ 1. Population: group of individuals (same species) 2. Community: populations inhibiting the same area 3. Ecosystem: communities in the same area interaction 4. Biosphere: Collection of all ecosystems BIOL 100D 5 ~Cycling~ Energy flows Nutrients cycle N=Nutrients Ener gy Reflected Hea Energy t ~Antibiotics~ 1. Antibiotics: Treatment for illness caused by bacteria ONLY Means of treatment: 1. Inhibit growth 2. Inhibit reproduction 3. Kill bacteria ~Spectrums~ Spectrum: type of bacteria which are targeted by specific antibiotics 1. Wide (Broad) Spectrum: many different types of bacteria targeted 2. Narrow Spectrum: one specific type of bacteria targeted BIOL 100D 6 ~Two Main Types of Bacteria~ 1. Gram Negative Complex cell wall (multiple parts) Usually located in gastrointestinal tract 2. Gram Negative Similar larger cell wall On a body surface or at the opening of a body cavity ~Determining Infection Type~ Staining: dies part of the bacteria cell to make the visible o Gram stain: differentiate between gram positive and gram negative because of cell wall structure Bacterial shape o Bacillus (Rod) o Coccus (Sphere) o Spirillus (Spiral) Bacteria can be in groups or singular ~Discovery and Uses~ Penicillin o Isolated in 1928 o From bread fungus Inhibited growth on Petri dish Amoxicillin o Modified from penicillin o Available in 1972 o Moderate spectrum BIOL 100D 7 Ciprofloxacin o Synthetic o Usage began in 1987 o Mode of action Inhibits DNA synthesis by binding DNA gyrase o Broad spectrum ~Mechanisms of Defense~ Acquiring genes for different methods of resistance o Horizontal Gene transfer: moving a gene from one organism to another Virus, transposons Conjugation: needle like apparatus that shoots out Individuals in the same species amount different species ~Organization~ Atom: smallest unit 1. Molecule: at least two atoms chemically bonded together 2. Organelles: structure within the cell that preform specialized functions 3. Cells: smallest unit in a living system 4. Tissue: group of cells carrying out the same function 5. Organs: higher level or organizations of related organs 6. Organism: individual ~Scientific Method~ Systematic set of steps used to answer questions or solve problems Key components 1 . Obervations Use of senses or extensions of our senses to record an event Includes scientific instruments Must be able to be reportable to others and repeatable 2. Question BIOL 100D 8 After the event has been observed, a scientist formulates questions about the event a. Cause of event? b. Will it happen again? c. Can I control the event? Questions that are too broad or complex may be impossible to answer Questions that are too simple may not give meaningful answers 3. Hypotheses: a statement that provides a possible answer to a question, or an explanation for an event may be tested 4. Experiment: a recreation of an event or occurrence that allows a scientist to test a hypothesis to see if it is supported Collected data a. Variables: separate factors that cay be at work influencing the event b. Controlled experiment: an experiment where only one variable is tested i. Control group: no manipulation of the variable ii. Experimental group: variable is manipulated iii. Independent variable: is manipulated by the scientist iv. Dependent variable: event being observed or tested 5. Communicating information: Scientists must be able to tell other scientists about their discoveries scientific journals scientific meetings and conferences.
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