New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIOL 100 D, Week one

by: Anneka sundell

BIOL 100 D, Week one Biol 1000

Anneka sundell
GPA 3.4
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Human Biology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Human Biology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes are a basic overview of the beginning components of Biology
Human Biology
Mr. Jeff Carter
Class Notes
Biology, Science




Popular in Human Biology

Popular in Biology

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anneka sundell on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1000 at Fort Hays State University taught by Mr. Jeff Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Fort Hays State University.


Reviews for BIOL 100 D, Week one


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/19/16
BIOL 100D 1 Human Biology ~Properties of Life~ 1. Energy: the capacity to do work  The ultimate energy source is the Sun  Solar Energy is transformed into chemical energy Ex. Carbs/ATP/protein 2. Metabolism: chemical reactions that occur in the cell 3. Homeostasis: stable set of internal conditions  Everything is working as it should in the body  Humans sweat/ shiver to maintain body temperature 4. Response to Stimulus: interacting with surroundings  Grabbing something hot and letting it go by reflex 5. Reproduce: life comes from life  Every organism can reproduce (make another life itself)  Either Sexually or Asexually 6. Develop: organisms grow 7. Adapt: modifications that make organisms suited to a way of life and surroundings  Ex. Moles have shovel like claws and small eyes ~Domains ~ 1. Based on DNA and Proteins, there are 3 types of domains 1. Bacteria  E. coli, staphylococcus BIOL 100D 2  “U Bacteria” 2. Archaea: live in extreme environments  “Archaea Bacteria”  More closely related to humans  Not pathogenic  3. Eukarya: Everything with a nucleus in its cells  Kingdoms 1. Protist: (Protista) unicellular to a few multicellular organisms 2. Plants: (Plantae)Multicellular photosynthesis 3. Animals: (Animalia)multicellular organisms that ingest their foods 4. Fungi: molds and mushrooms that decompose dead organisms.  Family relation is closer than Bacteria with anything Tree of Life ~Biological Hierarchy~ 1. Domain (Dear) Most Inclusive (includes many things) 2. Kingdom (King) BIOL 100D 3 3. Phylum (Philip) 4. Class (Came) 5. Order (Over) 6. Family  (For) 7. Genus (Great) 8. Species  (Sex) Least Inclusive (includes one thing)                            How to Remember  ~Diversity of Life~  Organisms are grouped by similarities  Two Areas of biology help group: 1.  Taxonomy: Identify and name a. “Homo Sapiens” 2. Systematics: Classify based on evolutional relationships a. By “Family Tree” or DNA evidence  ~Scientific Naming~  Every Living thing has a two­part name.  Binomial Name:  First part:  Genus  Second part: Specific epithet 1. Ex Homo Sapiens  ~Evolution~ BIOL 100D 4  All living organisms can trace back t a single living organism  Evolution: the change in allele frequencies over time  Allele: one type of gene   Explains unity and diversity of life  ~Natural Selection~   Evolution occurs by natural selection 1. Charles Darwin 2. Alfred Wallace  Two key players in Natural Selection and evolution  Process that results in adaptation: 1.  Individuals in a population vary 2. Variation is heritable    Adaptation  occurs  3. More offspring produced than survive ~Levels or Organization~ 1. Population: group of individuals (same species)  2. Community: populations inhibiting the same area 3. Ecosystem: communities in the same area interaction  4. Biosphere: Collection of all ecosystems  BIOL 100D 5 ~Cycling~  Energy flows   Nutrients cycle N=Nutrients Ener gy Reflected Hea Energy t ~Antibiotics~ 1. Antibiotics: Treatment for illness caused by bacteria ONLY  Means of treatment: 1. Inhibit growth 2. Inhibit reproduction 3. Kill bacteria ~Spectrums~  Spectrum: type of bacteria which are targeted by specific antibiotics 1. Wide (Broad) Spectrum: many different types of bacteria targeted 2. Narrow Spectrum: one specific type of bacteria targeted BIOL 100D 6 ~Two Main Types of Bacteria~ 1. Gram Negative  Complex cell wall (multiple parts)  Usually located in gastrointestinal tract 2. Gram Negative  Similar larger cell wall   On a body surface or at the opening of a body cavity ~Determining Infection Type~  Staining: dies part of the bacteria cell to make the visible o Gram stain: differentiate between gram positive and gram negative because of  cell wall structure  Bacterial shape o Bacillus (Rod) o Coccus (Sphere) o Spirillus (Spiral)   Bacteria can be in groups or singular ~Discovery and Uses~  Penicillin o Isolated in 1928 o From bread fungus  Inhibited growth on Petri dish   Amoxicillin o Modified from penicillin o Available in 1972  o Moderate spectrum BIOL 100D 7  Ciprofloxacin  o Synthetic  o Usage began in 1987 o Mode of action  Inhibits DNA synthesis by binding DNA gyrase o Broad spectrum ~Mechanisms of Defense~  Acquiring genes for different methods of resistance  o Horizontal Gene transfer: moving a gene from one organism to another  Virus, transposons   Conjugation: needle like apparatus that shoots out  Individuals in the same species amount different species ~Organization~  Atom: smallest unit 1. Molecule: at least two atoms chemically bonded together 2. Organelles: structure within the cell that preform specialized functions 3. Cells: smallest unit in a living system 4. Tissue: group of cells carrying out the same function 5. Organs: higher level or organizations of related organs 6. Organism: individual  ~Scientific Method~  Systematic set of steps used to answer questions or solve problems  Key components  1 .              Obervations  Use of senses or extensions of our senses to record an event  Includes scientific instruments  Must be able to be reportable to others and repeatable  2. Question  BIOL 100D 8  After the event has been observed, a scientist formulates questions  about the event a. Cause of event? b. Will it happen again? c. Can I control the event?  Questions that are too broad or complex may be impossible to  answer  Questions that are too simple may not give meaningful answers  3. Hypotheses: a statement that provides a possible answer to a  question, or an explanation for an event may be tested  4. Experiment: a recreation of an event or occurrence that allows a  scientist to test a hypothesis to see if it is supported  Collected data a. Variables: separate factors that cay be at work influencing  the event b. Controlled experiment: an experiment where only one  variable is tested i. Control group: no manipulation of the variable ii. Experimental group: variable is manipulated  iii. Independent variable: is manipulated by the  scientist iv. Dependent variable: event being observed or  tested 5. Communicating information: Scientists must be able to tell other  scientists about their discoveries  scientific journals  scientific meetings and conferences. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.