Cognitive Psych - Notes 1.12.16 Day 1
Cognitive Psych - Notes 1.12.16 Day 1 PSYCH 2014
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2014 at George Washington University taught by Hanna Rutz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
NOTES – TUESDAY 1/12/16 Readings for today: Chapter 1 (“What is cognitive psychology?”) Professor Hanna Rutz Slide 1 (Title) Slide 2 Defining Cognition Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of cognition Cognition: the acquisition, modification, and utilization of information from the environment o Studies the mind and behavior Cognitive processes are… o Conscious and unconscious (many that we will cover will be unconscious) (events such as problemsolving are conscious behaviors) o Limited (in the amount of time it takes to process them) Cognition is essentially the thinking, awareness, and acquiring of knowledge Slide 3 What is the origin of knowledge? It is internal (our own thoughts) It is external (the world around us) *Stems from Ancient Greece – there was a debate about this Plato, for example, thought that knowledge was internal Slide 4 Origin of knowledge Rationalism – knowledge is innate o Nativism, dualism o Plato, Descartes (French mathematician and logician) Descartes made the x/yaxis graph, etc. Often associated with dualism He began the thought of systematic doubt We doubt everything BUT he couldn’t doubt that he COULD doubt o “I think, therefore I am” o In his mind, ideas were clearer if they were less doubtable Many things in the physical world had a lot of doubt o If you think of a square, we’d all probably think of a similar square o But if you think of a dog, we’d all probably think of different dogs o Reality is not in the physical world o Acquire knowledge about the world through reason o Introspective and logical analysis Rationalists don’t like observation Slide 5 Origin of knowledge Empiricism – knowledge from experience o Knowledge is learned, acquired o Reality is the physical world o Aristotle, Locke o Observation is the only way to truth *Tabula rasa – blank slate We acquire knowledge as we go about our lives If you can’t observe it then you can’t trust it Slide 6 Defining cognition Cognition – the study of processes by which sensory input is: o Transformed o Reduced o Elaborated o Stored o Recovered o Used Slide 7 Transform information External information must be transformed into an internal code that is processed by our brain o Electrical, mechanical, and chemical stimulation of our receptors is transformed into perpetual experience o This is sort of like when we see an image we see it as upside down, but the signal is transformed for us so we can perceive it the way it really looks o *Symbolic distance effect (requires longterm memory) The greater the distance between the internal representation of the stimuli, the faster the responses (Essentially, when you have to make a mental comparison, it takes longer if the two symbols are objects are close together) Our internal processes (transformations of physical stimulation), not what our senses perceive, account for the judgments we make Slides 8 & 9 Demonstration of symbolic distance effect (it’s harder to tell which circle is bigger when they’re both very similar in size) Slide 10 Reduce information Cognitive processes tend to reduce our experiences Memories of events are not perfect recordings Slide 11 Demonstration of reducing information – it’s hard to tell which penny has the true face because we don’t study pennies specifically so often Slide 12 Elaborate information Recollections tend not to be perfect duplications of what was originally learned Recollections are more like reconstructions that elaborate on a theme Students heard a list of random words that could be one of four categories and would later recall other words from those categories that had not been listen Slide 13 Store and recover information Memory involves the mental operations that store information as well as recover or retrieve it at the appropriate times Why does memory sometimes fail? “How is it that our memory is good enough to retain the least triviality that happens to us, and yet not good enough to recollect how often we have told it to the same person?” (La Rochefoucauld) Slide 14 Use information Remembering when an exam is coming up would be using prospective memory Comprehending what people say to us when they say it would be language understanding Answering the question, “Do they grow coffee in Paraguay?” and using your knowledge of the surrounding area would be reasoning
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