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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Ali on Thursday February 20, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 182 views.
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Date Created: 02/20/14
Psych 105 What is developmental psychology A science involving description and explanation of changes over time in the structure thought or behavior of person emotion personality language gender understanding social world Basic Questions of Developmental Psychology Describing and Explaining Development Theme 1 Biology amp Environment Nature vs Nurture Biology Genes received from our parents which might regulate growth of psychological abilities Environment Everything else Can be psychical as well as social Where does knowledge come from Environment Knowledge learned from experience The things we know come through our senses via learning from environment BLANK SLATE Genes Knowledge is coded for in genes The things we know mature or are triggered as development proceeds CORE KNOWLEDGE Theme 2 General vs Specialized Learning Theories emphasize learning from environment suggest limited initial structure philosophical trad tabula ras blank slate John Locke 16321704 Common viewpoint in psych science and modern pop culture Walt Disney Baby mindblank book lst years written on it If slate is initially blank then the learning mechanisms required must be GENERAL PURPOSE Pavlovs classical conditioning as envisioned on the of ce Give altoid after the sound OR Dog salivate to bell learning Skinners Operant Conditioning Bi g Bang Theory Associate action with positive outcome Pi gent Blank Slate Theory General Purpose Learning Problems about s people obj ects General Purpose Learning Actions learning even in non humans often specialized rather than general Learning even in non human often specialized rather than general Food Nausea Taste Adversion Tone Nausea No learning tone shock place aversion Food shock no learning Alt to general purpose learning Many specialized learning mechanisms Features f Core Knowledge theories SlateNot blank Pre exi sting structure in infants mind many not be learned Early non learned core knowledge Specialized in some important domains imp from evolutionary past Skelton bare bones understanding rather than full ashed out adult like competence Provides foundation that guides later learning from experience Even when there is core knowledge the env is still required ex what explains where our fear of heights comes from Infants dont need to experience falling from high surface to develop fear BUT fear of heights is not present at birth novice crawlers will cross deep side of visual cliff after months experience with crawling infants become reluctant to cross pretty sure core knowledge exists Even when core knowledge environment is still required ex what explains our expertise at face recognition infants have unlearned pref for faces unleashed bias to attempt to faces this will lead to lots of experience with faves expertise with faces develops as result of core knowledge and experience together Relation of themes to Cross Cultural Evidence Core knowledge Specialized tlearning theories imply a narrower range of outcomes in diff environments Blank late general purpose learning theories imply possibility of widely diff outcomes in diff environments ex culture and language language learning core knowledge learning language blank slate GoalsBene ts of Research in Child Development Early detection of developmental delay disorder Early life experiences important for later outcomesintervention promoting most ef cient ways for children to learn Goals of Psychological Research 1 descrive 2 predict 3 determine 4 explain The language learning core knowledge and environment human language can be broken down into simple rules Skinner blank slate learning mechanism of association word like babble reinforced by adult speakers blabbing becomes words worlds reinforced words become sentenced gradual shaping of response reward primitive sentences then more elaborate sentences creation of new language structures according to ruleswhen applied to novel words they cannot be based on learning from direct experience Overgeneralizin g Over application Sometimes they apply rules too much over generalize Pinker amp Alda over use of rules arguments against blank slate theories Lead to rst core knowledge theories for language development Chomsky argued all children have Language Acquisition Device built in riles to get learning off the ground built in pattern of development domain speci c Universal Pattern of Development every human culture has at least one language same stage like pattern of development seen in all human cultures BUT DONT FORGET even With core knowledge environment still play critical roles language you learn depends on What exposed to language acquisition requires exposure to language and the timing of language exposure is critical Timing of experience is critical 1 evidence from isolated children 1 Genie discovered at age 13 acquired Words but never able to make grammatical sentences 2 Isabelle Escaped imprisonment at age 65 Within 18 months normal lang for her age Evidence that timing of language exposure is critical Learning a second language english grammar scores or immigrants to US vs age on arrival in US individuals Who arrived When older or When adults perform less Well PRECURSORS TO Language Acquisition Methods attention measure can be used in auditory domain as Well as visual domain rate of sucking on paci er used as measure of attentivenessinterest Infants prefer to listen to native language neWborn babies prefer to listen to passage read in native language over same passage read by same reader in diff lang this preference probably results from hearing rhythmic aspects of language prenatally Younger infants discriminate all speech sounds older infants tune in their own language Younger infants can hear the speech sound contrast of all languages suggest that experience With speech sounds that are used in native language are maintained at expense of sounds no usedexperienced LECTURE JANUARY 23 2013 Adults prepare infants for language learning Infant Directed Speech Exaggeration Higher voice Extreme changes in intonation longer pauses more repititions Slower amp clearer Exaggerated facial expressions Infants prefer to listen to IDS Infants learn language quicker when they hear IDS Infants focus on melody of utterances to glean meaning Stages in language development 9 months Babble 12 months1 word 18 months 2 word 36 monthscomplex grammar Prior to babbling 812 months Speech songs from native language Sounds comprised of consonant followed by vowel Ba ba ba ga ga ga Issue Language amp Speech Is speech necessary for language Test case Deaf infants exposed to sign language babble manually First Words 1213 months but variability in exact age First 50 or so words have same everywhere mostly nouns Mom dad siblings pets common objects Very few function words and at the of etc Problem with word learning by association too many possible meanings Solving the gavagai problem children cannot be complete blank slates they must have some initial assumptions about what words are likely to mean But what about assumptions 1 whole object assumption 1 assume word is label for a whole object 2 mutual exclusivity assumption 1 assume objects have only ONE label 3 Non verbal cues from knowledgeable speaker 1 eye gaze toddlers will learn name for a hidden object based on where a person is looking when they name a word 2 emotional cues toddlers can track and remember emotional displays that signal word meaning Two word stage telegraphic speech 1824 months simple sentences abbreviated still no function words Eg hurt knee Daddy Sleep Again even though infants are not yet producing complex sentences they are sensitive to grammar Word orderings Remember cross modal selective looking method ex big bird tickling cookie monster cookie monster tickling big bird moving beyond 2 Word stage is largely a matter of incorporating gradually more function Words to ll out and arranging Words into more complex sentences using more clauses etc eat cookie to i eat ing cookie s to Large individual differences in progression from 2 Word state to more complex speech Note ORDER xed so still consistent With stage development
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