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SOC Module 1 Material

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by: Madeline Sittason

SOC Module 1 Material SOC101

Madeline Sittason
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About this Document

notes for chapter one and two
Sociology 101-002 Intro To Sociology
Tiffiny E. Guidry
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Sittason on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Tiffiny E. Guidry in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
Chapter 1 Sociology in a Changing World  Sociology – systematic study of the relationship between individuals and society.  Sociological perspective – to see and understand the connections between individuals and the broader social contexts in which they live  Sociological imagination – C Wright Mills, enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within a society  Modernity – characterized by the growth of democracy and personal freedom, increased reliance on reason and science to explain the natural and social worlds, and a shift toward an urban industrial economy  Industrial revolution – collection of major developments that transformed rural agricultural societies into urban industrial societies  Industrialization – use of large-scale machinery for the mass manufacture of consumer goods  Urbanization – the growth of cities  Positivism – a belief that accurate knowledge must be based on the scientific method  Comte – stability and change, coined the term SOCIOLOGY  Spencer – society as a social organism, letting the weak perish so the strong can survive  Spencer and Comte helped to define the terrain of sociology  Key Founders; Marx, Durkheim, and Weber  Marx – the answer could be found in the relationship between capitalists, who owned the means of production, and the laborers (proletariat), who worked for wage  Durkheim – social solidarity o Social solidarity – the collective bonds that connect individuals o Collective conscience – shared values of a society o Anomie – normlessness, without moral guidance  Weber – the protestant ethic and the rationalization of modern life, verstehen o Rationalization of society – the long-term historical process by which rationality replaced tradition as the basis for organizing social and economic life  Harriet Martineau – gender discrimination  WED Du Bois – Racial Inequality  Jane Addams – Urban Social Problems  George Mead – interactionist perspective  Social theory – set of principles and propositions that explains the relationships among social phenomena  Conflict – tensions and disputes in society, often resulting from the unequal distribution of scarce resources, which can contribute to social change  Consensus – solidarity and cooperative interaction, often due to shared values and interests, can contribute to social stability  Objective conditions – material aspects of social life, including the physical environment, social networks, and social institutions  Subjective dimension – involves the world of ideas, including our sense of self, social norms, values, and belief system  Macro level of analysis – focus on large scale social systems and processes such as the economy, politics, and population trends  Manifest functions – the recognized and intended consequences of social phenomena  Structural-functionalist theories – focuses on consensus and cooperative interaction in social life, emphasizing how different elements that make up a society’s structures contribute to its overall operation  Functionalist theothes – were dominant in the united stated in the middle of the 20 century  Manifest functions – the recognized and intended consequences of social phenomena  Latent functions – their largely unrecognized and unintended consequences  Dysfunctional – inhibiting or disrupting the working of a system as a whole  Culture – the collection of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors, and material objects shared by a people and socially transmitted from generation to generation  Structure – refers to the recurring patterns of behavior in social life  Power – the ability to bring about an intended outcome, even when opposed by others  Post modernity – historical period beginning in the middle twentieth century characterized by the ride of information based economics and the fragmentation of political beliefs and ways of knowing  Functionalist perspective emphasizes how parts of a society are structured to maintain stability Chapter 2 Understanding the Research Process  Sociology is an activity that uses the framework of science to ask questions, gather data, and seek answers about the phenomena of the social world, iuncluding where wer are at ris of dying at the hands of a stranger  Applied research – the primary goal of this type of research is to directly address some social problem or need  Basic research – primary goal of this type of research is to describe some aspect of society and advance our understanding of it  Content analysis – variety of techniques that enable researchers to systematically summarize and analyze the content of various forms of communications – written, spoken, or pictorial  Correlation – a relationship in which change in one variable is connected to change in another variable  Critical social science – research carried out explicitly to create knowledge that can be used to bring about social change  Dependent variable – the entity that changes in response to the independent variable  Empirical evidence – data that can be observed or documented using the human senses  Experiment – a data gathering technique in which the researcher manipulates an independent variable under controlled conditions to determine if change in an independent variable produces change in a dependent variable, thereby establishing a cause- and-effect relationship  Field research – data collection technique in which the researcher systematically observes some aspect of social life in its natural setting  Generalize – ability to describe patterns of behavior of a larger population based on findings from a sample  Hawthorne effect – the fact that human beings will react differently because they know they are in a study  Hypothesis – statement about the relationship between variables that is to be investigated  Independent variable – the entity that is associated with and/or causes change in the value of the dependent variable  Informed consent – the principle that subjects in any study must know about the nature of the research project, any potential benefits or risks that they may face, and that they have the right to stop participating at any time, for any reason  Intensive interview – a data gathering technique that uses open- ended questions during somewhat lengthy face-to-face sessions  Interpretive social science – an approach that focuses on understanding the meaning that people ascribe to their social world  Operationalize – to define the variables you are interested in studying  Peer-review process – a way in which scholars evaluate research manuscripts before they are published in order to ensure their quality  Positivist social science – an approach that assumes that the social world, like the natural world, is characterized by laws that can be identified through research and used to predict and control human affairs  Public sociology – the effort to bring the finding of both basic and applied sociological research to a broader nonacademic audience  Qualitative data – any kind of evidence that is not numerical in nature, including evidence gathered from interviews, direct observation, and written or visual documents  Quantitative data – evidence that can be summarized numerically  Random sample – sample in which every element of the population has an equal chance of being chosen  Research methods – the procedures used by a researcher to collect and analyze data  Sample – part of the population a researcher is studying that represents the whole  Secondary data analysis – type of research using data previously collected by other researchers  Survey – a data collection technique that involved asking someone a series of questions  Transparency – the requirement that researchers explain how they collected and analyzed their evidence and how they reached their conclusions  Value-neutrality – the goal of removing any personal views from the research process; part of positivist social science  Variables – measures that can change or vary and this have different values  Unquestioned trust in authorities – we have to be skeptical about knowledge claims based solely on someone’s status as an authority  Unquestioned acceptance of “common sense” – Kids inhabit a world in which Santa’s existence is reinforced by their peers, history is full of false isdeas that were considered common sense by many people in their times (world was flat)  Unquestioned acceptance of traditional beliefs  Generalizations based on personal experience  Reliance on selective observation  Biased observation and interpretation  4 key elements distinguish social science research: identifying and understanding patterns in social life, gathering empirical evidence, explain how the evidence was collected and analyzed, and viewing the resulting research claims as provisional knowledge  Special challenged of social science: o Social researchers are unlikely to be able to control conditions o Social life cant be predicted with the certainty of natural laws o Human beings are conscious of being studied, which may change their behavior  Theory roles can: highlight key questions or issues, explain the data collected, help us see the connections between phenomena that aren’t immediately apparent  Problems that can arise when researchers write survey questions o Lack of clarity o Different definitions o Loaded language o Double-barreled questions  Screenshot of major data techniques  Screenshot of research process  Screenshot of 3 approaches to social science research


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