Microbiology Week 1 Notes
Microbiology Week 1 Notes BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2200 (Microbiology, Dr. Thomas Roberts) at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Thomas Roberts in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 404 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biological Sciences at Wayne State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Ch. 1 Microorganisms and Microbiology Science of Microbiology Microbio revolves around 2 themes -Understanding basic life processes microbes are excellent models for understanding cellular processes in unicellular and multicellular organisms -Applying that knowledge to the benefit of humans microbes play important roles in medicine, agriculture, & industry Pathogenic microorganisms are bad/ non-pathogenic organisms are beneficial. Importance of microorganisms oldest form of life, largest mass of living material on Earth, carry out major processes for biogeochemical cycles, can live in places unsuitable for other organisms, other life forms require microbes to survive * Important for building/synthesizing material we need Microbial Cells Cell: dynamic entity that forms the fundamental unit of life -Cell membrane: barrier that separates the inside of the cell from outside environment -Cell wall: (present in most microbes) confers structural strength & structure of organism (ex: rod, spiral, etc.) Endospores: cellular components that allows organisms to survive when conditions become adverse Cells have the ability to do taxes (allows cells to go to environments where there are favorable things or to go away from things) -Not all organisms have this ability Characteristics of living systems Metabolism: chemical transformation of nutrients -Reproduction: generation of two cells from one -Differentiation: synthesis of new substances or structures that modify the cell (only in some microbes) -Communication: generation of, & response to chemical signals (only in some microbes) -Movement: via self-propulsion, many forms in microbes (not essential for life) -Evolution: genetic changes in cells that are transferred to offspring Properties of ALL cells: compartmentalization, metabolism, growth, & evolution Properties of SOME cells: motility, differentiation, communication, & genetic exchange Cells as catalysts & as coding devices 1. Cells carry out chemical reaction a. Enzymes: protein catalysts of the cell that accelerates chemical reactions 2. Cells store & process information that is eventually passed on to offspring during reproduction through DNA & evolution a. Transcription & translation Most bacteria are single celled organisms (unicellular) Genetic & catalytic functions both lead to growth. -Genetic functions used DNA & either replicates it or transcribes it. If it is transcribes, it is translated into proteins which lead to growth -Catalytic functions use metabolism, enzymes, or the conservation of energy (ATP), which leads to growth Growth: the link between cells as machines & cells as coding devices Microorganisms & their environment Exists in nature in populations of interacting assemblages (microbial community: combination of various microbial organisms; functional community of microorganisms) Habitat: environment in which a microbial population lives in Ecosystem: all living organisms plus physical & chemical constituents of their environment Microbial ecology: the study of microbes in their natural environment Microbial organisms remove organisms that make the area easier to live in for other organisms -Removes & processes nutrients *Rarely in nature do pure bacterial cultures exists Diversity & abundances of microbes are controlled by resources (nutrients) & environmental conditions (temp, pH, O ) 2 Activities of microbial communities can affect the chemical & physical properties of their habitats Microbes interact with physical & chemical environment -Ecosystems greatly influenced by microbial activities -Microorganisms change the chemical & physical properties of their habitats through their activities Evolutions & the extent of microbial life 1 self-replicating entities may not have been cells LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor) -stl have cell membranes, ribosomes, use DNA, and have cytoplasm 1 cell appeared between 3.8 &3.9 billion years ago Atmosphere was anoxic until ~2 billion years ago (metabolisms were exclusively anaerobic until evolution of O p2oducing prototroph) Life was exclusively microbial until ~ 1 billion years ago The extent of Microbial life Global estimate of 5X10 30cells Microbial biomass is significant & ells are key reservoirs of essential nutrients (C,P,N) Pathogens are harmful microorganisms that have toxins & lead to disease. Microorganisms as disease agents -Control of infectious disease during last century Microorganisms that are beneficial (flora) overgrown & keep pathogenic organisms for growing (important for women to maintain pH) Microorganisms & Agriculture -Many aspects of agriculture depends on microbial activities -Positive impact: nitrogen fixing bacteria, cellulose-degrading microbes in the rumen, & regeneration of nutrients in soil & water -Negative impacts: diseases in plans & animals Microorganism & Food -Negative impacts: food spoilage requires special preservations -Positive impacts: microbial transformation yield Dairy products & other food products (ex: pickles, beer, bread) Microorganisms & environment -Biofuel production (methane, ethanol, hydrogen) Role cleaning up the environment (bioremediation) Microorganisms & Genetic Resources -Exploitation of microbes for production of antibiotics, enzymes, & various chemicals -Genetic engineering of microbes to generate products of value to humans (Ex: insulin biotechnology) Robert Hooke st -1 to describe microbes -Illustrated the fruiting structures of molds Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1 to describe bacteria Ferdinand Cohn -Founded the field of bacterial classification & discovered bacterial endospores Louis Pasteur -Living organisms discriminate between optical isomers -Alcoholic fermentation was a biologically mediated process -Disproved theory of spontaneous generation, which led to development of methods for controlling the growth of microorganisms (aseptic technique) -Developed vaccines for anthrax, fowl cholera, & rabies Robert Koch -Link between microbes & infectious diseases Identified causative agents of anthrax & tuberculosis -Developed techniques (solid media) for obtaining pure cultures of microbes -Koch’s postulates: the suspected pathogen must be present in all cases of the disease & absent from healthy animals; the suspected pathogen must be growth in pure cultures; cells from a pure culture of the suspected pathogen must cause disease in a health animal; the suspected pathogen must be reisolated & shown to be the same as the original Apply to diseases that have an appropriate animal model -Discovered that using solid media provide a simple way of obtaining pure cultures Gold standard: being able to identify one disease with the animal Microbial diversity: field that focuses on nonmedical aspects of microbiology Martinus Beijernck -Developed enrichment culture technique (microbes isolated from natural samples in a highly selective fashion by manipulating nutrients & incubating conditions) -Developed a system, which allows you to grow quantities of material at a time Sergi Winograsky -Concept of chemolitrotrophy (oxidation of inorganic compounds linked to energy conservation) -Demonstrated that specific bacteria are linked to specific biogeochemical transformations Microbiology directions -Applied & basic (studying characteristics of organisms) Molecular Microbiology -Fueled by genomics revolution -Biotechnology: manipulation of cellular genomes DNA from one organism can be inserted into a bacterium & the proteins encoded by that DNA harvested -Genomics: study of all genetic materials in living cells
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