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ASTR001 Survey of the Universe Week 1 Notes

by: Sophia Shore

ASTR001 Survey of the Universe Week 1 Notes ASTR 001

Marketplace > University of Pennsylvania > Astronomy > ASTR 001 > ASTR001 Survey of the Universe Week 1 Notes
Sophia Shore
GPA 3.65
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About this Document

First week of notes in astronomy-based class. Great for studying.
Survey of the Universe
Mark Devlin
Class Notes
astronomy, Earth Science, Penn




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Shore on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 001 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Mark Devlin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Survey of the Universe in Astronomy at University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
ASTR 001: Survey of the Universe  The Origins of Astronomy o Influenced Religion, Agriculture (calendars, clocks, etc.) o The Sun and Moon   The sun is responsible for most types of energy  Except geothermal, wind, etc.   The moon is responsible for tides, night­light, etc.  A cycle of the moon takes 28 days  Earth takes 23 hours 56 minutes to rotate on its axis   Asteroids and comets are cosmic “junk” and were present 5bya   Mars sent us meteorite in 1990s  Crab Nebula Supernova Remnant: observed in 1054, 6500 ly from  earth and 11 ly in diameter   Carbon based life must have gone through a star   Key Physical Principles o Kepler’s Laws o Newton’s Laws o Conservation of Energy o Conservation of Momentum o Conservation of Angular Momentum o Properties of light   How and why do objects in the sky move? o Motions in the sky  Earth is an approximately spherical platen about 13000 km across, that  rotates counterclockwise once every 23h 56m on an axis that runs through  its poles  This causes objects in the sky to appear to move across the sky in the  direction opposite earth’s rotation (E­W) it results in night and day  o We can track the sky  Hourly, daily (diurnal), yearly, 1000s of years  o How can we track the position of things in the sky?  Angles: (See: Orion)  Angular measurements: Full circle is 360 degrees, 1 degree equals  60 arcminutes (3,600 arcseconds in a degree); the moon is 1,800  arcseconds in diameter   See: PPT diagram: vertical/horizontal   Small angle formula: relates physical size of the object with  distance and angle it subtends in the sky (moon and sun can look  the same size because they have the same angles, but the moon is  closer  o D=ad/206,265   ­   d=206,265*D/a   ­   a=206,265*D/d  Local Coordinates  From our perspective it looks like we are located inside a huge  bowl stretching above us; if not for the ground blocking it, the sky  would appear as an enormous sphere of stars – a celestial sphere –  surrounding us  o Over the course of 24 hours, the equator people can see the  “whole sky”  o Every object that rises and sets will pass through the  meridian, but not the zenith (highest point in the sky)   Meridian is the highest it gets in the sky within 24  hours  Sun: when sun rises in east, passes meridian at  noon, sets in the west  o What moves?  Previously it was thought that things rotated around  us  o What does movement depend on? o North star depends on where our rotation point is (north  pole has zenith in the center; nothing rises or sets,  Philadelphia has mid latitude, the angle to the north star is  further away from zenith; equator it is on the horizon)   Motions of the sky, seen from the North Pole o The north celestial pole is directly overhead o As earth spins, the stars seem to go around the north  celestial pole in circles o The half of the sky north of the celestial equator is visible;  no stars south of the celestial equator can ever be seen   Motions from 30N o The NCP is 30 degrees above the horizon o Stars still go around the NCP; this means that they must  rise and set, except for stars within 30 degrees of the NCP,  which never goes below the horizon  o You can see some stars as far as 60 degrees south of the  celestial equator   The sky from the equator o The NCP is precisely on the horizon, due north  Sextons find positions on the sky  o All stars still go around the NCP; this means that they must  all rise and set o You can see the entire celestial sphere, over the course of a  day  What are the implications for Navigation?  Latitude  Longitude   Interesting Reading:  “Longitude the true story of a lone  genius…” Dava Sobel   How long is a day? o Earth moves around the sun in one degree per day, a degree is about 4 minutes, 1 rotation is 23h 56m (sidereal day) 1  day is 24 hrs (solar day)  o A solar day is longer than a sidereal day because:   The Earth’s revolution around the sun leads to changes during the  year o Because Earth orbits the sun counter­clockwise the Sun  appears to move eastward against the stars by about 1  degree per day. The earth needs 4 minutes extra rotation  time to account for that motion, hence the solar vs. sidereal  day o The path of the sun against the stars is also the projection of earth’s orbit on the celestial sphere, it is called the ecliptic  and contains the constellations from the Zodiac  s  s o s  s


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