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PSYCH 1001 Test 3 notes

by: Hannah Zikria

PSYCH 1001 Test 3 notes 1001-11

Marketplace > George Washington University > 1001-11 > PSYCH 1001 Test 3 notes
Hannah Zikria
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These are what will be on Test 3
General Psychology
Benbassat, D
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Zikria on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1001-11 at George Washington University taught by Benbassat, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.

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Date Created: 01/19/16
perception vs. sensation distal vs. proximal stimuli Top-down processing: mental processes---expectation beliefs; knowledge, memory, language--->identification←--- organization; depth; constancy----perceptual organization←-sensation<--sensory processes-- environmental stimulation Bottom up processing SDT: systematic approach to problem of response bias; allows separation of roles in final initial sensory process subsequent separate decision process VISION sensory cells are specialized to convert physical signals to cellular signals photoreceptors in the retina are sensitive to light rods: most sensitive to dim light; not sensitive to color cones: visual experience of normal/bright light and senses color * dark adaptation is a gradual improvement of eye sensitivity after a change in light intensity=>(usually taking ~30 min.)as time passes in the dark, rods become more sensitive than cones and are able to respond to to less lights than cones can * fovea contains only densely packed cones; no rods therefore will only be used in light (- >sharpest vision: pertaining to both color and spatial detail accuracy) other cells in retina integrate information between rods and cones bipolar(nerve)cells combine impulses from receptors; sending results to ganglion ganglion cells integrate impulses from each other into a one firing rate (cones and rods in each area of retina send to ganglion in that particular region) horizontal&amacrine cells: integrate info across retina by connecting receptors amacrine cells link bipolar cells to each other & ganglion to one another optic disk=blind spot=area where optic nerve leaves each eye that has no receptor cells; made up for by other eye in everyday circumstances IMPORTANT VOCABULARY optic nerve=axons of ganglion cells that carry information from eye toward brain hue=dimension of color space that captures the qualitative experience of light saturation=dimension of color space that captures purity/vividness of sensation brightness=dimension of color space that captures intensity of light complementary colors=colors opposite one another on the color circle (when mixed they create sensation of white light) trichromatic theory=3 color receptors produce primary color sensations of RGB(red, green, blue) opponent-process theory=all color experiences come from 3 systems pitch=quality of highness or lowness in sound; dependent on freq. of soundwave loudness=perceptual dimension of sound influenced by the amplitude timbre=dimension of auditory sensation that shows sound wave complexity cochlea=fluid-filled coiled tube inside inner ear; primary organ of hearing basilar membrane=membrane in cochlea set into motion by sound waves to stimulate hair cells thus producing neural effects of auditory stimulation auditory nerve=carries impulses from cochlea to the brain’s cochlear nucleus place theory=different frequency tones lead to maximum activation at different locations along basilar membrane; pitch is coded for by the place in which activation occurs frequency theory=tone produce a rate of vibrations equal to its frequency, in the basilar membrane; pitch can be coded for by the frequency of neural response volley principle(extension of frequency theory)=when peaks in a soundwave come too frequently for a single neuron to fire at each peak, several neurons fire as a group at the frequency of stimulation tone pheromone=chemical signal released by an organism to communicate w/ other members of the species (often serving as long distance sexual attractors) gustation=sense of taste vestibular sense= tells how one’s own body is oriented in the world w/ respect to gravity kinesthetic sense=concerned with bodily position and movement of body parts relative to one another pain=body’s response to noxious stimuli intense enough to cause (or threaten to cause) tissue damage gate-control (pain modulation) theory=proposes certain cells in the spinal cord to act as gates to interrupt and block some pain signals while sending others to the brain attention=state of focused awareness on a subset of available perceptual info. goal-directed attention: determinant to what parts of sensory input to be selected for further processing Gestalt psych=states psychological phenomena can be understood only when viewed as organized, structured wholes (as a sum of its parts) and not when broken down into primitive perceptual elements phi phenomena=simplest form of apparent motion; movement illusion in which 1 or more stationary lights going on and off in succession are perceived as a single moving light binocular depth cue=uses info from both eyes retinal disparity=displacement between horizontal positions of corresponding images in the 2 eyes convergence=the degree to which both eyes turn inward to fixate on objects motion parallax=source of info about depth in which relative distances of objects from a viewer determine amount and direction of their relative motion in its retinal image monocular depth cue=uses info from only 1 eye perceptual constancy=ability to retain unchanging percept of an object despite variations in retinal image size constancy=ability to perceive true size of objects despite variations in retinal image size shape constancy=ability to perceive true shape of object despite change in retinal image size lightness constancy=tendency to perceive whiteness, grayness or blackness of objects as constant across changing levels of illumination illusion=experience of stimulus pattern in a way that is incorrect but shared by others in same perceptual environment bottom-up processing=perceptual analysis based on sensory data in environment; analysis results are passed upward to more abstract representations top-down processing=info from individual’s past experience, knowledge, expectations, motivations and background influence the way a perceived object is interpreted or classified ambiguity=property of perceptual object that can have multiple interpretations class notes: 02/08/2016 Ernst Weber (1795-1878) pioneered the study on Just Noticeable Difference Weber’s Law: assertion that the size of a difference threshold is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimulus/JND between stimuli is a constant fraction of the intensity of the standard stimulus. JND=smallest difference between 2 sensations that allow them to be discriminated Course through which light takes from eye to brain: Cornea--->Iris--->lens-->retina (focused at the fovea)-->optic nerve (carries nerve signals) Light waves are transduced into neural impulses and do not need medium to travel through light waves require medium vs sound waves that need a medium to travel through 1. amplitude; perceived as brightness 2. intensity does not = wavelength gradient trichromatic theory (young-helmholtz) 3 RGB colors stimulated in diff. combinations to make all colors on palate opponent-process theory found in pp w/ red-green color blindness who can still see yellow ppl fail to see color pairs Negative after-image effect 3 primary pairs of colors (red-green, yellow-blue, dark-bright, & black-white Sound-auditory sound travels by air conduction (bouncing against air) in the pinna (outer ear) auditory canal(amplifier)->molecules (in the TM) 2. middle ear->sound travels by bone conduction smallest bones in human body: hammer, anvil and stirrup->hit oval window(responsible for head position) 3. inner ear->sound travels by fluid conduction through the snail-shaped cochlea [technically the other part of the oval window] cochlea contains suspended cells/organ receptors cillia on cochlea are mechanical receptors waves that pass cillia create action potentials 4. action potentials sent to temporal lobe for processing physical vs. psychological attributes phys psych frequency=# waves that pass per second (measured in Hertz) TIMBRE=mixed freq. (most often heard in real life). allows differentiation of musical instruments pure tone PITCH amplitude LOUDNESS (measured in dB) PITCH THEORIES; freq. and rate are directly proportional freq. theory: accounts for low range (20-300Hz) different frequencies vibrate cilia at diff. RATES changes have to repolarize so can’t create high-pitch action potentials 2. Volly Principle: (accounts for mid-range freq.1,000-5,000Hz); cannot account for more due to refractory time period needed in between each action potential phase neurons fire in sequence (volley-teams) accounts for middle range frequencies 3. Place Theory (Helmholz): (accounts for high-range/rate freq. 5,000 to 20,000Hz) most human hearing is >5,000 Hz --->different frequencies vibrate cilia at different PLACES w/ in cochlea middle-range frequencies distort basilar membrane at the apex (=innermost part of cochlea) Gestalt psych->Koffka, Wertheimer, Kohler -laws of grouping Depth perception-> binocular cues retinal disparity (stereopsis) signal fusion from disparate points on each retina convergence causes eyes move inward for close objects causes eyes to move farther apart for distant objects accommodation lenses protrude for close objects lenses flatten for distant objects monocular cues used by artists to provide the illusion of 3D on a 2D canvas Perceptual constancies-> changing world perceived as stable ->distal stimulus keeps its physical properties ->non-variant properties of distal stimulus constant size compensating for distance requires past knowledge & experience Ames room illusion shape consistency


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