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GEOGRAPHY 101: Week 2

by: Katharyn Taylor

GEOGRAPHY 101: Week 2 Geography 101

Katharyn Taylor
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These are the notes from the second week of lectures on Tuesday and Thursday, January 19th and 21st.
World Geography
Dr. Neil Conner
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Neil Conner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
THE  BRITISH  ISLES  GEO  101   THE  REPUBLIC  OF  IRELAND  /  THE  EMERALD  ISLE   •   NORTH  ATLANTIC  DRIFT  –  this  is  the  warm  water  ocean  current  that   makes  the  British  Isles  consistently  warm  and  rainy  despite  latitude   •   POTATOES  –  were  a  staple  food  for  many  Irish  families  and  the  most   historically  iconic  Irish  crop   •   1845  THROUGH  1849  –  the  years  in  which  Potato  Blight  rotted  potato   crops  and  cause  the  Great  Irish  Potato  Famine   •   ENGLAND  –  the  Irish  had  a  lot  of  tension  with  this  power  at  the  time,  and   they  therefore  blamed  England  for  the  famine.  Trevelyan  was  a  notable   Englishman  with  some  power  over  trade  at  the  time  who  expressed  utter   disregard  for  the  suffering  of  the  Irish     •   PENNY  WALLS  –  creation  of  these  was  a  public  works  program  during  the   famine  and  its  aftermath.  This  meant  that  the  Irish  would  work  for  a   penny  a  day  on  these  ‘Famine  Walls’  instead  of  simply  receiving  charity   •   1  MILLION  –  the  approximate  number  of  Irish  people  who  died  during   the  period.  Another  approximate  million  emigrated  out  of  the  country.   Together,  that  meant  about  a  fourth  of  the  entire  population  was  gone   •   DUBLIN  –  the  capital  and  largest  city  in  Ireland   •   RIVER  LIFFEY  –  divides  Dublin  into  two  halves:  industrial  and  aristocratic   •   EASTER  RISING  –  the  Irish  rebellion  in  1916  that  was  centered  around  the   famous  post  office.  Led  by  the  Irish  Republican  Brotherhood,  it  was  a  cry   for  independence.  It  led  to  large  a  surge  of  Irish  support  of   Independence  from  English  power   •   GUINNESS  –  the  most  popular  beverage  in  Ireland.  Followed  closely  by   Jameson  whiskey   •   ST.  PATRICK  –  patron  saint  of  Ireland,  an  84%  Catholic  nation.  There  is  a   myth  on  the  island  that  this  saint  got  rid  of  all  of  the  snakes     •   SHAMROCK  –  three  leaved  plant  that  St.  Patrick  used  to  represent  the   holy  Christian  trinity   •   BLARNEY  CASTLE  –  home  of  the  famous  ‘Blarney  Stone.’  Kissing  this   stone  is  said  to  award  eloquence  and  persuasiveness   •   CLIFFS  OF  MOHER  –  famous  cliffs  in  southwestern  Ireland  that  are  iconic   and  scenic.  Used  in  harry  Potter,  The  Princess  Bride,  etc.   •   IRISH  TRAVELLERS  –  nomadic  and  socially  outlandish  group  that  live  and   travel  all  across  the  British  Isles.  Known  for  non-­‐socially  acceptable   behavior,  and  they  are  important  to  Ireland’s  national  identity  because   of  the  ‘us  versus  them’  dynamic   •   SHEEP  HERDING  &  FISHING  –  the  two  most  common  money-­‐makers  on   the  west  coast  of  Ireland   •   CELTIC  TIGER  –  period  from  1995  to  2007  during  which  Ireland   experienced  rapid  economic  growth  and  therefore  a  need  to  fill  many   more  jobs.  The  foreign-­‐born  population  increased  to  16.7%,  a  high   percentage  even  for  Europe.  Tensions  began  to  arise  between  Irish -­‐born   and  born-­‐abroad  people,  particularly  African  immigrants   NORTHERN  IRELAND   •   NORTHERN  IRELAND,  WALES,  SCOTLAND,  ENGLAND  –  all  members  of  the   union  of  the  United  Kingdom.  There  are  many  more  territories  and   countries  that  are  connected  to  the  crown  outside  of  this  union   •   THE  GIANT’S  CAUSEWAY  –  this  is  a  collection  of  interlocking  basalt   columns  (weird  looking  rock  formation)  that  is  the  most  popular  tourist   destination  in  Northern  Ireland.  The  mythical  giant’s  name  is  Finn   •   BELFAST  –  the  capital  of  Northern  Ireland   •   TITANIC  –  built  in  1912  in  this  city.  Belfast  now  has  a  Titanic  Museum   2   •   THE  TROUBLES  –  ethnopolitical  fighting  from  the  1960’s  to  the  1990’s   between  the  66%  of  the  citizens  who  were  Protestants  (Black  and  Tans)   and  the  other  34%  who  were  Catholic  (Irish  Republican  Army)   •   THE  GOOD  FRIDAY  AGREEMENT  –  ended  the  violence  in  1998   ENGLAND   •   25%  -­‐  the  amount  of  the  world’s  land  under  British  control  in  1920   •   FOURTEEN  –  the  number  of  British  Overseas  Territories  nowadays   •   COMMONWEALTH  OF  NATIONS  –  a  multinational  organization  made  of   primarily  former  British  territories  that  promote  peace,  fair  trade,  etc.   •   LONDON  –  the  capital  of  England   •   THE  RIVER  THAMES  –  the  river  that  divides  London  in  half   •   DAVID  CAMERON  –  the  Prime  Minister  of  the  UK.  They  have  no  term   limits,  and  the  Prime  Minister  is  the  leader  of  the  majority  party   •   BIG  BEN  –  the  name  of  the  bell  inside  of  the  Elizabeth  Tower.  Attached   to  the  British  Parliament  building,  it’s  a  major  global  landmark   •   WESTMINSTER  ABBEY  –  a  famous  Anglican  church  in  London.  British   monarchs  and  many  notable  British  figures  are  buried  there   •   TOWER  OF  LONDON  –  the  British  Crown  Jewels  are  kept  in  the  Jewel   House  on  the  grounds  of  this  castle.  Many  of  these  jewels  are  Indian   heirlooms  the  British  took  during  their  reign  over  Indian  trade   •   QUEEN  ELIZABETH  II  –  the  current  monarch  of  the  UK   •   BUCKINGHAM  PALACE  –  the  royal  palace  in  London   •   STONEHENGE  –  famous  mysterious  rock  formation  in  southwest  England   •   ENGLISH  CHANNEL  –  the  channel  that  separates  England  from  France   •   CHUNNEL  –  opened  in  1994,  this  tunnel  connects  Great  Britain  and   France  underwater     3   SCOTLAND   •   HADRIAN’S  WALL  –  constructed  in  122  AD,  this  wall  separated  England   from  Scotland.  Was  once  a  heavily  patrolled  border,  and  now  its  ruins   are  a  popular  tourist  destination   •   HIGHLANDS  –  northern,  more  rural,  stereotypically  ‘hillbilly’  Scotland   •   LOWLANDS  –  southern  area  of  Scotland  where  the  majority  lives   •   LOCH  –  Gaelic  word  for  lake   •   LOCH  NESS  –  the  most  famous  Scottish  lake  because  of  the  myth  of   Nessie,  the  monster  who  inhabits  it   •   HAGGIS  –  the  national  dish  of  Scotland  in  which  a  sheep’s  heart,  liver,   and  lungs  are  boiled  inside  of  its  stomach   •   FISH  AND  CHIPS  –  most  common  dish  served  in  the  British  Isles   o   Cuisine  is  important  to  national  identity,  and  the  British  Isles  are   really  not  known  for  their  food   th •   OIL  –  found  in  the  late  20  century  in  the  North  Sea   •   EDINBURGH  –  capital  of  Scotland,  called  the  Athens  of  the  north   •   GLASGOW  –  the  most  populated  city  in  Scotland.  Called  the  second  city   in  the  British  Empire   •   2011  –  Scottish  National  Party  gained  power  and  pushed  for   independence   •   SEPTEMBER  2014  –  Scotland  held  a  referendum  to  decide  whether  it   would  stay  a  part  of  the  United  Kingdom  or  become  independent   o   55%  no  and  45%  yes  with  an  84.6%  voter  turnout   o   Decided  not  to  dissolve  the  union   4   SPAIN  &  FRANCE   SPAIN   •   IBERIAN  PENINSULA  –  the  peninsula  made  up  of  Spain  and  Portugal   •   STRAIT  OF  GIBRALTER  –  the  strait  that  connects  the  Atlantic  Ocean  to  the   Mediterranean  Sea.  Its  narrowest  point  is  a  mere  8  miles  across   •   HISPANIA  –  the  ancient  Roman  name  for  the  Iberian  Peninsula   •   Roman  Architecture  in  Spain:   o   AQUEDUCT  OF  SEGOVIA   o   TOWER  OF  HERCULES   •   MOORS  –  conquered  the  Iberian  Peninsula  in  711  AD   •   ALHAMBRA  –  the  Moorish  fort/palace  in  Granada,  Spain.  Had  waterways   throughout  it  that  acted  as  air  conditioning   •   1492  –  year  of  the  Spanish  Reconquesta.  King  Ferdinand  and  Queen   Isabella  took  power  and  send  Columbus  to  sail  to  the  new  world   •   MADRID  –  capital  of  Spain   •   FELIPE  VI  –  current  King  of  Spain,  a  constitutional  monarchy   •   PAELLA  &  TAPAS  –  two  common  Spanish  dishes   •   LA  TOMATINA  –  huge  public  tomato  fight  held  in  Buñol  on  the  last   Wednesday  of  August   o   Many  small  towns  in  Spain  have  their  own  traditional  festival.   Not  so  much  national  identity  as  it  is  regional   •   CATALONIA  –  Barcelona  is  the  ‘capital’  of  this  autonomous  region  of   Spain.  Catalonia  is  not  independent  of  Spain,  but  the  people  have  an   independent  regional  identity  and  a  culture  very  different  from  the  rest   of  the  country   •   LA  SAGRADA  FAMILIA  –  an  unfinished  cathedral  in  Barcelona  designed  by   Gaudi.  The  construction  is  currently  being  continued  and  is  set  t o  be   completed  in  2026   •   BASQUES  –  ethnic  group  found  in  the  northeast  of  Spain  and  southwest   of  France  who  wish  to  form  their  own  country  by  claiming  the  lands  they   inhabit  from  both  countries.  Known  to  use  violence  in  their  fight  for   independence,  unlike  the  Catalonians  who  are  peaceful   •   E.T.A.  –  terrorist  organization  associated  with  the  Basque  cause.  They   often  target  tourist  destinations  in  Spain  because  tourism  is  such  a   big   part  of  Spain’s  economy   •   PAMPLONA  –  holds  Fiesta  de  San  Fermin/Running  of  the  Bulls.  Began  in   Medieval  time  as  a  parade  of  the  bulls  with  their  owners.  These  festivals   are  not  a  part  of  Spain’s  national  identity,  while  bulls  themselves  are   •   ERNEST  HEMINGWAY  –  made  the  Running  of  the  Bulls  known  to  the  rest   of  the  world  in  The  Sun  Also  Rises     •   PYRENEES  –  mountain  range  that  separates  Iberian  peninsula  from  the   rest  of  Europe,  more  specifically  the  Spain  and  France  border   FRANCE   •   PARIS  –  the  capital  and  largest  city   •   SEINE  RIVER  –  runs  through  Paris   •   EIFFEL  TOWER  –  most  famous  landmark  in  Paris   •   NOTRE  DAME  DE  PARIS  –  famous  gothic  cathedral  in  Paris.  Completed  in   the  year  1345.  The  front  door  is  called  the  door  of  judgment   •   ARCH  DE  TRIOMPHE  –  famous,  huge  archway  located  at  the  end  of  the   Champs-­‐Élysées  (famous  Parisian  boulevard).  It  honors  French   Revolutionaries  and  those  who  died  in  the  Napoleonic  Wars   •   MONA  LISA  –  the  most  famous  painting  in  the  LOUVRE,  the  most  visited   art  museum  in  the  world.  It  was  painted  by  Leonardo  de  Vinci   2   •   FRANCOIS  HOLLANDE  –  the  current  president  of  France.  Presidents  in   France  can  serve  up  to  two,  five  year  terms   •   PALACE  OF  VERSAILLES  –  the  lavish  royal  palace  where  the  French   monarchs  historically  lived.  The  most  famous  room  is  the  Hall  of  Mirrors,   where  the  Treaty  of  Versailles  was  signed   •   WINE  –  France  and  Italy  are  the  neck-­‐and-­‐neck  top  producers  of  this   alcoholic  beverage.  In  2014  France  was  ranked  number  one   •   ESCARGOT  –  a  famous  French  dish.  Snails   •   NUCLEAR  POWER  –  what  accounts  for  approximately  80%  of  France’s   electricity.  A  country  the  size  of  Texas,  they  have  59  nuclear  power   plants.  That’s  a  lot  for  only  being  the  size  of  Texas   •   TOUR  DE  FRANCE  –  the  annual  bike  race  in  France.  First  one  was  held  in   the  year  1903   o   This  race  is  important  to  France’s  national  identity  because  it   highlights  the  French  landscape.  It  showcases  over  600  villages   and  towns  every  year  across  every  type  of  terrain,  and  ends  at   the  Arch  de  Triomphe  in  Paris   •   FRENCH  RIVIERA  –  the  first  European  “vacation  spot,”  its  is  the   southeastern  French  coastline  on  the  Mediterranean  Sea   •   MARSEILLE  –  France’s  second  largest  city.  It  is  a  cultural  blend  of  many  of   the  nations  that  were  once  under  French  control.  Lots  of  north-­‐African,   Muslim  citizens  here   •   ISLAN  –  the  religion  of  most  of  France’s  current  immigrants   •   NATIONAL  FRONT  –  the  extremely  right-­‐wing  French  Nationalist  political   party.  They  are  very  anti-­‐Islam   •   LAÏCITÉ  –  French  separation  of  church  and  state   •   2004  LAW  –  stated  there  would  be  no  tolerance  for  wearing  any  sort  of   religious  symbol  in  French  public  schools.  Though  not  stated,  this   seemed  to  be  targeted  at  those  practicing  Islam   3   •   2010  LAW  –  no  wearing  full  face  veil  is  public  places  in  France.  This  was  a   law  clearly  directed  at  those  practicing  Islam   •   CHARLIE  HEBDO  -­‐  The  French  newspaper  that  was  attacked  by  in  January   of  2015.  This  was  retaliation  for  printing  satirical  depictions  of  the   prophet  Muhammad   th •   NOVEMBER  13  2015  –  the  most  recent  attacks  in  Paris.  130  people   were  killed  that  night   o   The  global  support  for  this  tragedy  was  immense,  as  sh own  on   social  media  sites.  Many  world  leaders  also  congregated  in   France  to  show  support  of  the  country   4  


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