GEOGRAPHY 101: Week 2
GEOGRAPHY 101: Week 2 Geography 101
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharyn Taylor on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 101 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Neil Conner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
THE BRITISH ISLES GEO 101 THE REPUBLIC OF IRELAND / THE EMERALD ISLE • NORTH ATLANTIC DRIFT – this is the warm water ocean current that makes the British Isles consistently warm and rainy despite latitude • POTATOES – were a staple food for many Irish families and the most historically iconic Irish crop • 1845 THROUGH 1849 – the years in which Potato Blight rotted potato crops and cause the Great Irish Potato Famine • ENGLAND – the Irish had a lot of tension with this power at the time, and they therefore blamed England for the famine. Trevelyan was a notable Englishman with some power over trade at the time who expressed utter disregard for the suffering of the Irish • PENNY WALLS – creation of these was a public works program during the famine and its aftermath. This meant that the Irish would work for a penny a day on these ‘Famine Walls’ instead of simply receiving charity • 1 MILLION – the approximate number of Irish people who died during the period. Another approximate million emigrated out of the country. Together, that meant about a fourth of the entire population was gone • DUBLIN – the capital and largest city in Ireland • RIVER LIFFEY – divides Dublin into two halves: industrial and aristocratic • EASTER RISING – the Irish rebellion in 1916 that was centered around the famous post office. Led by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, it was a cry for independence. It led to large a surge of Irish support of Independence from English power • GUINNESS – the most popular beverage in Ireland. Followed closely by Jameson whiskey • ST. PATRICK – patron saint of Ireland, an 84% Catholic nation. There is a myth on the island that this saint got rid of all of the snakes • SHAMROCK – three leaved plant that St. Patrick used to represent the holy Christian trinity • BLARNEY CASTLE – home of the famous ‘Blarney Stone.’ Kissing this stone is said to award eloquence and persuasiveness • CLIFFS OF MOHER – famous cliffs in southwestern Ireland that are iconic and scenic. Used in harry Potter, The Princess Bride, etc. • IRISH TRAVELLERS – nomadic and socially outlandish group that live and travel all across the British Isles. Known for non-‐socially acceptable behavior, and they are important to Ireland’s national identity because of the ‘us versus them’ dynamic • SHEEP HERDING & FISHING – the two most common money-‐makers on the west coast of Ireland • CELTIC TIGER – period from 1995 to 2007 during which Ireland experienced rapid economic growth and therefore a need to fill many more jobs. The foreign-‐born population increased to 16.7%, a high percentage even for Europe. Tensions began to arise between Irish -‐born and born-‐abroad people, particularly African immigrants NORTHERN IRELAND • NORTHERN IRELAND, WALES, SCOTLAND, ENGLAND – all members of the union of the United Kingdom. There are many more territories and countries that are connected to the crown outside of this union • THE GIANT’S CAUSEWAY – this is a collection of interlocking basalt columns (weird looking rock formation) that is the most popular tourist destination in Northern Ireland. The mythical giant’s name is Finn • BELFAST – the capital of Northern Ireland • TITANIC – built in 1912 in this city. Belfast now has a Titanic Museum 2 • THE TROUBLES – ethnopolitical fighting from the 1960’s to the 1990’s between the 66% of the citizens who were Protestants (Black and Tans) and the other 34% who were Catholic (Irish Republican Army) • THE GOOD FRIDAY AGREEMENT – ended the violence in 1998 ENGLAND • 25% -‐ the amount of the world’s land under British control in 1920 • FOURTEEN – the number of British Overseas Territories nowadays • COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS – a multinational organization made of primarily former British territories that promote peace, fair trade, etc. • LONDON – the capital of England • THE RIVER THAMES – the river that divides London in half • DAVID CAMERON – the Prime Minister of the UK. They have no term limits, and the Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party • BIG BEN – the name of the bell inside of the Elizabeth Tower. Attached to the British Parliament building, it’s a major global landmark • WESTMINSTER ABBEY – a famous Anglican church in London. British monarchs and many notable British figures are buried there • TOWER OF LONDON – the British Crown Jewels are kept in the Jewel House on the grounds of this castle. Many of these jewels are Indian heirlooms the British took during their reign over Indian trade • QUEEN ELIZABETH II – the current monarch of the UK • BUCKINGHAM PALACE – the royal palace in London • STONEHENGE – famous mysterious rock formation in southwest England • ENGLISH CHANNEL – the channel that separates England from France • CHUNNEL – opened in 1994, this tunnel connects Great Britain and France underwater 3 SCOTLAND • HADRIAN’S WALL – constructed in 122 AD, this wall separated England from Scotland. Was once a heavily patrolled border, and now its ruins are a popular tourist destination • HIGHLANDS – northern, more rural, stereotypically ‘hillbilly’ Scotland • LOWLANDS – southern area of Scotland where the majority lives • LOCH – Gaelic word for lake • LOCH NESS – the most famous Scottish lake because of the myth of Nessie, the monster who inhabits it • HAGGIS – the national dish of Scotland in which a sheep’s heart, liver, and lungs are boiled inside of its stomach • FISH AND CHIPS – most common dish served in the British Isles o Cuisine is important to national identity, and the British Isles are really not known for their food th • OIL – found in the late 20 century in the North Sea • EDINBURGH – capital of Scotland, called the Athens of the north • GLASGOW – the most populated city in Scotland. Called the second city in the British Empire • 2011 – Scottish National Party gained power and pushed for independence • SEPTEMBER 2014 – Scotland held a referendum to decide whether it would stay a part of the United Kingdom or become independent o 55% no and 45% yes with an 84.6% voter turnout o Decided not to dissolve the union 4 SPAIN & FRANCE SPAIN • IBERIAN PENINSULA – the peninsula made up of Spain and Portugal • STRAIT OF GIBRALTER – the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. Its narrowest point is a mere 8 miles across • HISPANIA – the ancient Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula • Roman Architecture in Spain: o AQUEDUCT OF SEGOVIA o TOWER OF HERCULES • MOORS – conquered the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD • ALHAMBRA – the Moorish fort/palace in Granada, Spain. Had waterways throughout it that acted as air conditioning • 1492 – year of the Spanish Reconquesta. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took power and send Columbus to sail to the new world • MADRID – capital of Spain • FELIPE VI – current King of Spain, a constitutional monarchy • PAELLA & TAPAS – two common Spanish dishes • LA TOMATINA – huge public tomato fight held in Buñol on the last Wednesday of August o Many small towns in Spain have their own traditional festival. Not so much national identity as it is regional • CATALONIA – Barcelona is the ‘capital’ of this autonomous region of Spain. Catalonia is not independent of Spain, but the people have an independent regional identity and a culture very different from the rest of the country • LA SAGRADA FAMILIA – an unfinished cathedral in Barcelona designed by Gaudi. The construction is currently being continued and is set t o be completed in 2026 • BASQUES – ethnic group found in the northeast of Spain and southwest of France who wish to form their own country by claiming the lands they inhabit from both countries. Known to use violence in their fight for independence, unlike the Catalonians who are peaceful • E.T.A. – terrorist organization associated with the Basque cause. They often target tourist destinations in Spain because tourism is such a big part of Spain’s economy • PAMPLONA – holds Fiesta de San Fermin/Running of the Bulls. Began in Medieval time as a parade of the bulls with their owners. These festivals are not a part of Spain’s national identity, while bulls themselves are • ERNEST HEMINGWAY – made the Running of the Bulls known to the rest of the world in The Sun Also Rises • PYRENEES – mountain range that separates Iberian peninsula from the rest of Europe, more specifically the Spain and France border FRANCE • PARIS – the capital and largest city • SEINE RIVER – runs through Paris • EIFFEL TOWER – most famous landmark in Paris • NOTRE DAME DE PARIS – famous gothic cathedral in Paris. Completed in the year 1345. The front door is called the door of judgment • ARCH DE TRIOMPHE – famous, huge archway located at the end of the Champs-‐Élysées (famous Parisian boulevard). It honors French Revolutionaries and those who died in the Napoleonic Wars • MONA LISA – the most famous painting in the LOUVRE, the most visited art museum in the world. It was painted by Leonardo de Vinci 2 • FRANCOIS HOLLANDE – the current president of France. Presidents in France can serve up to two, five year terms • PALACE OF VERSAILLES – the lavish royal palace where the French monarchs historically lived. The most famous room is the Hall of Mirrors, where the Treaty of Versailles was signed • WINE – France and Italy are the neck-‐and-‐neck top producers of this alcoholic beverage. In 2014 France was ranked number one • ESCARGOT – a famous French dish. Snails • NUCLEAR POWER – what accounts for approximately 80% of France’s electricity. A country the size of Texas, they have 59 nuclear power plants. That’s a lot for only being the size of Texas • TOUR DE FRANCE – the annual bike race in France. First one was held in the year 1903 o This race is important to France’s national identity because it highlights the French landscape. It showcases over 600 villages and towns every year across every type of terrain, and ends at the Arch de Triomphe in Paris • FRENCH RIVIERA – the first European “vacation spot,” its is the southeastern French coastline on the Mediterranean Sea • MARSEILLE – France’s second largest city. It is a cultural blend of many of the nations that were once under French control. Lots of north-‐African, Muslim citizens here • ISLAN – the religion of most of France’s current immigrants • NATIONAL FRONT – the extremely right-‐wing French Nationalist political party. They are very anti-‐Islam • LAÏCITÉ – French separation of church and state • 2004 LAW – stated there would be no tolerance for wearing any sort of religious symbol in French public schools. Though not stated, this seemed to be targeted at those practicing Islam 3 • 2010 LAW – no wearing full face veil is public places in France. This was a law clearly directed at those practicing Islam • CHARLIE HEBDO -‐ The French newspaper that was attacked by in January of 2015. This was retaliation for printing satirical depictions of the prophet Muhammad th • NOVEMBER 13 2015 – the most recent attacks in Paris. 130 people were killed that night o The global support for this tragedy was immense, as sh own on social media sites. Many world leaders also congregated in France to show support of the country 4
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