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Organic Chemistry Week 1 Notes

by: Raghad Kodvawala

Organic Chemistry Week 1 Notes 2510

Marketplace > Ohio State University > 2510 > Organic Chemistry Week 1 Notes
Raghad Kodvawala
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Week 1 Notes
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Cunningham
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raghad Kodvawala on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2510 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Cunningham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules Organic Chemistry the chemistry of carbon and its compounds 1-1: The Scope of Organic Chemistry: An Overview  The goal of organic chemistry is to relate the structure of a molecule to the reactions that it can undergo o Functional groups groups of atoms used to classify organic molecules according to the subunits and bonds that determine their chemical reactivity  Functional groups determine the reactivity of organic molecules  Alkanes molecules composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms connected by single bonds  Contain no functional groups therefore are basic scaffold of organic molecules  Cyclic alkanes contain carbon atoms in a ring o Stereoisomerism when two compounds with the same connectivity differ in the relative positioning of their component atoms in space o Substitution a reaction in which one halogen atom may be replaced by another o Elimination a process in which adjacent atoms may be removed from a molecule to generate a double bond o The structure of a molecule determines the reactions can undergo o Synthesis the making of new molecules  Reactions are the vocabulary and mechanisms are the grammar of organic chemistry o Reaction mechanism the underlying details of the reaction o Reaction intermediate a species formed on the pathway between reactants and products 1-2: Coulomb Forces: A Simplified View of Bonding  Coulomb’s law of electric charge o Opposite charges attract each other o Like charges repel each other  Bonds are made by simultaneous coulombic attraction and electron exchange o As two atoms approach each other, the positively charged nucleus of the first atom attracts the electrons of the second atom and vice versa but the electrons of each atom repel each other o Coulomb’s law opposite charges attract each other with a force inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the centers of charges 2  Attracting force = constant [(+) charge × (-) charge]/distance o Bond strength the energy released as neutral atoms are brought together o Bond length the point at which no more energy is released  The balance between the attractive forces of electrons and protons and repulsive force of protons 1-3: Ionic and Covalent Bonds: The Octet Rule  Covalent bond formed by the sharing of electrons  Ionic bond based on the electrostatic attraction of two ions with opposite charges Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules  Electrons are completely transferred  Results in a cation (+) and an anion (-)  Atoms have vastly different electronegativities  The periodic table underlines the octet rule¨ o Atoms tend to form molecules in a way as to reach an octet in the outer electron shell and attains a noble gas configuration o Exceptions to the octet rule  Boron | B B | — | — 6 e (neutral) 8 e (negative)  Phosphorus .. || P P | | 8 e (neutral) 10 e (neutral)  Sulfur .. || || S S S ˙˙ ˙˙ || — — — 8 e (neutral) 10 e (neutral) 12 e (neutral)  In pure ionic bonds, electron octets are formed by transfer of electrons o Valence electrons outer-shell electrons o Ionization potential the energy it takes to remove an electron o Electron affinity the energy released when an electron attaches itself to an atom  In covalent bonds, electrons are shared to achieve octet configurations o Covalent single bonds the sharing of two electrons  double 4 electrons  triple 6 electrons  In most organic bonds, the electrons are not shared equally o Polar covalent bond a covalent bond between two atoms with different electronegativities o Electropositive electron donating elements whose electrons are held less tightly by the nucleus o Electronegative electron accepting elements o Polarization a shift of the center of electron density toward the more electronegative atom  δ or δ are used to signify partial positive or partial negative  Electronegativity differences of 0.3 to 2.0 units indicate polar bonds o Dipole the separation of opposite charges 1-4: Electron – Dot Modeling: Lewis Structures Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules  Draw the molecular skeleton H H C H H H C C H H H  Count the electrons — — — CH4 1 C: 1 × 4 e = 4 e C2H4 2 C: 2 × 4 e = 8 e — 4 H: 4 × 1 e = 4 e— 4 H: 4 × 1 e = 4 e —  Fulfill the octet rule H H H : ˙. . ˙ H ∙ ∙ C ∙ ∙ H C : : C : . ˙ ˙ . H H H 1-5: Resonance Forms . .– : O : : O : | || C H C H / \\ / / \ . . / H N H N – ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ RESONANCE STRUCTURES  Resonance forms isomers differing only in the movement/location of electrons and not in nuclear positions  Delocalized the negative charge is evenly distributed over both atoms  Resonance hybrid the “true” structure of the molecule; a composite of all resonance forms δ -- : O : |¦ C H / \ˋ˴ˎ / H N δ – o Delocalizing by resonance has a stabilizing effect o For resonance to occur  Must have same bond connectivity  Must have same overall charge  Electrons must be in different locations  Must be valid Lewis structures o What makes a “good” resonance structure  All octets are full  Minimal formal charges Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding in Organic Molecules  Formal charges are on electronegative atoms


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