chapter 3 outline
chapter 3 outline BIOL 1110
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitrín Hall on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at University of Connecticut taught by Bernard Goffinet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Botany in Biology at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Atoms Molecules and Water The Basis of Life 31 All physical matter is made up of elements composed of distinct atoms elements cannot be broken down composed of one type of atom atoms composed of protons neutrons and electrons smallest unit with all chemicalphysical properties of element 9995 of 90 natural elements macronutrients Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen phosphorus sulfur calcium potassium magnesium Carbon de nes organic compounds Trace elementsmicronutrients plants require less Electrons If they orbit at the same distance they share a shell amp energy level 0 First holds 2 0 Second holds 8 0 Third holds 18 determines chemical properties 0 When it absorbs energy amp moves to a higher shell it is in an excited state 0 Energy is released as heat or light or transferred to electron of other atom Protons determine atomic number Protons plus neutrons atomic mass number 32 Several types of bonds link atoms to form molecules Ionic bonds gainloss of electrons Crystalline solid regular array of positive and negative ions Acids and bases contain ionic bonds Organic compounds contain carbon Weak acid plus associated base form a buffer Bicarbonate pathway 0 CO2 H20 gt H2CO3 gt H HCO3 Dissolve in water Covalent bonds 2 or more atoms share electrons Stronger than ionic bonds Most plants except legumes can t break triple N2 bonds unless they pair with microbes that can break apart N2 N compounds are usable by plants Join hydrogen oxygen nitrogen and carbon to form organic molecules Hydrogen can form 1 oxygen 2 nitrogen 3 carbon 4 Don t dissolve in water Hydrogen bonds weak attractions between molecules Polar compounds distinct positivenegative poles charged pole attracts charged pole of other polar molecules dissolve in water affect structure amp function of organic molecules DNA 33 Water has unique properties because it forms hydrogen bonds Water molecules Polar amp cohesive Form hydrogen bonds between slightly negative hydrogen and slightly positive oxygen of adjacent molecules Solidliquidgas forms enable life Highly effective solvent because of polar nature Hydrophilic ionic and polar covalent molecules Hydrophobic lack polar covalent bonds Amphipathic molecules with both regions ldeal medium for plants and other organisms Cohesion allows plants to suck water through rootsvascular system and expel gas through leaves Cohesions allows high speci c heat amount of heat required to raise the temperature ofa gram of that substance by 10 C that protect organisms from temperature swings Liquid water is more dense than solid water Chapter Wrapup Examine and Discuss Self Test 1 From Table 31 which of the following elements is not a macro nutrient in plants aPbScFedNeMg Which of the following molecules is a covalently bonded polar compound a NaCl b HCI c H20 d N2e 02 The atomic number of hydrogen is 1 and its atomic mass number is also 1 What are the atomic number and the atomic mass number of the isotope of hydrogen called tritium a 1 and 1 b 1 and 2 c 1 and 3 d 1 and 4 e 2 and 2 The giant redwoods Sequoia sempervirens can raise water up 115 m from their roots to their leaves What type of bonding confers such strength to a column of water to make this possible a ionic bonds b nonpolar covalent bonds c hydrogen bonds Applying Concepts Water is an extremely effective solvent has a high degree of cohesion and high speci c heat and as a solid ice is less dense than the cold liquid water in which it forms Explain how each of these properties of water is important to living organisms
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