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by: Regan Dougherty

NHM253Lecture1.pdf NHM 253

Regan Dougherty
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About this Document

Lecture notes for 1/19
Food Science
Dr. Crowe
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Crowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Food Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 01/19/16
Tuesday, January 19, 2016 NHM 253 Lecture 1 - Classes of Nutrients • Macronutrients (energy-yielding) - Carbohydrates - Protein - Lipids/Fats • Micronutrients (non-energy-yielding, generally present in a lesser quantity) - Water - Vitamins - Minerals • Purpose of Food: replace nutrients used during the body’s maintenance, repair, and growth - Food Science - what goes on with food outside the body - Nutrition - study of what goes on with food when it enters the body - These two disciplines (food science and nutrition) are different, but they must work together. - Food science is an applied science; it encompasses many different sciences. • chemistry • microbiology • law • statistics • nutrition • physics horticulture, animal science • 1 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 • biochemistry • engineering - The chemical structure of an ingredient influences flavor, texture, color, shelf-life, and how it interacts with other ingredients. - Vitamins and Minerals • Vitamins - organic (can be destroyed by heat, light, oxygen) - Foods with vitamins have additives to protect those vitamins. - Fat-soluble - A, E, D, K - Water-soluble - B, C • Minerals - inorganic (not destroyed in the cooking process) - ex. iron, sodium, potassium, calcium • Altering the Vitamin and Mineral Content of foods - Enrichment - process of adding nutrients that were lost during processing • Ex. When wheat is processed into flour, it loses 5 key micronutrients: riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, and folic acid. The FDA mandates that all wheat is enriched upon processing (all 5 minerals are added). - Fortification - adding nutrients to food products that were never present in the raw ingredients • ex. fortified cereals, vitamin D added to milk, calcium added to orange juice - Non-Nutritive Food Compounds • Phytochemicals - plant compounds which are shown to have beneficial health properties beyond basic nutrition - Many phytochemicals are pigmented plant compounds. - Food Additives - approved substances added to food so that it becomes a component of the food product and it affects the characteristics of the product • Most common food additives: sugar and salt and their derivatives • 4 Reasons for Additive Use - protect the nutrients in food 2 Tuesday, January 19, 2016 - extend the shelf-life of food - improve the sensory appeal/enhance flavor - maximize ingredient performance (how ingredients work together) - Evolution of Food Science Resulting from Changes in the Natural Environment • Ecological Concerns Impacting Food Research and Development - Increased demand for food, fiber, and water - Ecosystem contaminants and waste - Climate change - Over-production - Changes in habitat • Look at Table 1.1 in the text 3


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