Cognitive Psych - Notes 1.14.16 Day 2
Cognitive Psych - Notes 1.14.16 Day 2 PSYCH 2014
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2014 at George Washington University taught by Hanna Rutz in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
NOTES THURSDAY 11416 Readings for today Chapter 1 What is cognitive psychology Research Methods Basics Professor Hanna Rutz Slide 1 Title Slide 2 Before the cognitive revolution 0 Cognitive revolution began around the 19608 0 Before this behaviorism dominated psychology 0 John Watson wrote books and papers in many ways he was the father of behaviorism 0 BF Skinner is also often related to behaviorism 0 The main doctrine of behaviorism is to understand humans scientists must look at behavior rather than hypothesize about mental processes 0 Prior to behavior the main school of thought was introspection thinking deeply about mental processes etc I They saw this as a waste as selfre ection is not a science I It s not observable or measurable O Stimulus response approach was their response to this 0 Behaviorists believe there is a lawlike relationship in that one stimulus brings about one response etc 0 You could predict all behavior based on stimulus response Slide 3 Behaviorism 0 In the photo on the slide there is a box with a rat 0 The box contains foot pellets and there is a lever inside the center of the box 0 When the rat presses the lever a pellet will come down the reservoir 0 The rat will learn to press the lever more and more Behaviorism isn t quite dominant anymore but it s still useful as are Skinner boxes 0 Skinner tried to talk about language development in stimulus response terms 0 He thought children would mimic their parents in his study but it was not convincing Slide 4 Cognitive revolution 0 1959 cognitive revolution occurred 0 Included scientists from many fields 0 People wanted to know what came in between the stimulus and the response 0 People started using a stimulusorganism response approach 0 The key to this is one can use behavior to infer mental states and cognitive processes Slide 5 Cognitive revolution 0 Why did it occur 0 Partially because technology was evolving 0 It also offered concrete terms to describe mental processes 0 Chomsky s 1959 critique of Skinner s Verbal Behavior was pretty scathing I He laid out pointbypoint why Skinner was wrong I Thought there had to have been a cognitive explanation for language Slide 6 Origins of cognitive psychology 0 This was an emerging field 0 It s both an area of study and a philosophy 0 It encompasses that you must analyze the mental processes in order to understand behavior 0 This is called an information processing approach 0 It analyzes the ow of events both in the external and internal environment of the person 0 It shows how our past knowledge in uences our current behavior Slide 7 First part of cognitive psychology is Gestalt psychology 0 Human factors research 0 Computer simulation 0 Cognitive neuroscience 0 These all link together to in uence cognitive psychology 0 Professor Rutz is from the cogneuro field of thought Slide 8 Gestalt means form These were German psychologists in the early 1900s 0 They were interested in studying different situations the whole was more than the individual components 0 It was a holistic idea 0 Sought to discover the principles of how people s perception of the whole is derived from individual parts 0 We ll also talk more about this when we discuss pattern recognition Slide 9 Origins Gestalt psychology Illusory contours 0 Our minds can complete lines and gaps 0 For instance you likely see a triangle in the picture with the red circles and a vertical line in the picture with the blue circles Slide 10 Origins Human factors 0 This is also sometimes called human engineering 0 Concerned at first with military people they want to know why do radar operators sometimes fail to see the blips on a screen or why do pilots crash 0 How can mental processes string a reaction and how can we help it Slide 1 I Origins Computer simulation 0 Computers in the 50s and 60s allowed these terms to describe mental processes 0 It s useful in creating theories of how the human mind works 0 These theories can be created by computer simulation or by just data 0 Some terms derived from the computer metaphor include memory capacity storage retrieval encoding and decoding 0 They re all computer processing terms 0 Goal of this is even though we have these computer simulations some things are hard for computers to see we still don t know much about the brain but it the metaphor has actually helped us understand the mental processes Slide 12 Origins Computer simulation Two major types of models serial and parallel SERIAL Input from the environment I step 1 I step 2 I response 0 This is useful in understanding human memory and problemsolving but in human memory info comes into the senses and then we store it and can later retrieve it PARALLEL difference here is that they re all happening at the same time Input from the environment I process 1 I response process 2 process 3 etc Slide 1 3 Origins Cognitive neuroscience 0 This is the scientific study of the brain and its structures the neurological activity associated with it and cognitive function that results 0 Broca had patients with damages in various areas of the brain 0 Helped him learn how different parts of the brain control different functions patients with different brain injuries had different functional capabilities Slide 14 Origins cognitive science 0 Interdisciplinary field 0 Goal to focus on the mind and how people can interact in their environment Slide 15 Researching cognition 0 Difficult because cognitive processes are invisible to us 0 Over the years different methods have been developed to reveal how they work Slide 1 6 Theory and hypothesis Slide 1 7 Research concepts independent variable and dependent variable IV goes on the Xaxis DV goes on the yaXis Experiments find out whether changes in one variable X causes change in another variable Y X is always the independent variable therefore Y is always the dependent variable Independent variable what the researcher manipulates Dependent variable depends on the independent variable Slide 1 7 18 Research concepts 0 Betweensubjects design 0 Withinsubjects design see slide 0 Two groups a treatment maybe and a control 0 The control will get the placebo the other will get a real drug 0 Not all people in the groups experience all the levels of the IV CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION 0 Construct a concept like neuroticism or reaction time that we are interested in studying and can defined both conceptually and operationally 0 Operational definition definition of a construct or concept in terms of the specific steps or procedures used to measure it one can also speak of operationalizing a construct to create a variable Slide 19 Research concepts Prediction derived from the theory about how two or more variables can be related Slide 20 Cognitive research methods Slide 2 Cognitive research methods 0 The study detailed on the slide is important because it gave researchers an idea about how kids interpreted the story Slide 22 Cognitive research methods 0 Timer beings when a stimulus is presented 0 Then you measure the amount of time the participant takes to make a response Slide 23 Graph Slide 24 Cognitive research methods 0 College students do not show this pattern because their mental arithmetic processes are different Slide 25 Cognitive research methods 0 Transfer of training one method contributes to a better understanding than another method 0 This would be like if knowing something in the context of a song made it easier to memorize 0 The transfer of training is good because you can use it in new circumstances Slide 26 Themes for the semester Three goals linking research theory and practice Slide 27 Themes for the semester 0 Even though we re all unique we all have similar processes 0 With example involving newborns knowing attractiveness must be biologicallybased Slide 28 Themes for the semester 0 Acknowledging differences among people Slides 2933 Miscellaneous information not covered specifically in class
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