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Biology 1104K-- Ecology Notes

by: Logan Barnes

Biology 1104K-- Ecology Notes Bio 1104k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1104k > Biology 1104K Ecology Notes
Logan Barnes
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About this Document

Notes over the Ecology Chapter(s) which will be covered on the first midterm exam/study guide
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Chapman
Class Notes
Biology, Ecology, georgia state university




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Logan Barnes on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1104k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Chapman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/19/16
Ecology—Ch 27,28,29 Ecology  Study of organisms interacting with each other and their environment o Environment includes biotic and abiotic factors  Ecological Hierarchy (smallest to largest) o Organism o Population—all members of one species o Community—all different species in an ecosystem o Ecosystem—all communities and abiotic factors that are interacting o Biosphere—all the ecosystems on Earth  Why care about ecology o Interactions among species enrich our lives, inspires curiosity  Also, interactions between organisms is integral to all life o Ecological science is necessary to solve many problems; we depend on functioning ecosystem for many things o Ecology gives insight to diseases, and their treatments  Understanding Ecology’s uses o Manage ecosystems to maintain services o Grow food, manage pest o Deal w/ natural disasters and other problems w/o harming ecosystems Energy  Light is main source of energy first entering the system for almost all organisms  Nutrients can be recycled  Energy isn’t recycled as much, cant go down a level (cant go from a mouse back to insect that it ate) o 60% energy lost as heat thru processes o About 10% energy available through transfer from one trophic evel to the next  Energy flows (inefficiently), nutrients cycle  Energy comes from sun, caught by Autotrophs (Producers) o Energy enters through autotrophs o Energy transfer through tropic levels is inefficient  Producers get energy from photosynthesis, absorb CO2, release oxygen  Heterotrophs—get energy from sources other than yourself o Primary consumers all herbivores  Gross primary productivity– all the energy they get from sun  Net PP– Gross PP minus what they use up during respiration o This is whats available to move along trophic system; this sets basis for energy  Net PP determines How much energy is available, which in turn determines how many organisms can be supported in the system o Can be measured as Biomass (weight of organisms), or as energy (KCalories)  Tropical rain forests—high NPP b/c nutrients cycle quickly b/c moist and warm o Estuary also high NPP because runoff, wet, shallow so all of it gets sunlight  Decomposers—Bacteria and fungi compose the decomposers  Detritovores—eat dead stuff, but don’t decompose them and break them down o Don’t cause it to re-enter the nutrient cycle  Predation—organism hunts/eats the other  Parasitism—organism latches onto host, takes nutrients from host o One organism benefits from the relationship, the other is hurted from it  Competition—two organisms fight for same resources (food, water, land, etc…) o Both sides of relationship are negatively affected o Yes, one organism ‘wins’ by gaining the resource, they still have to fight, exert large amounts of energy, risk death  Mutualism—A relationship between organisms in which BOTH benefit o Bee drinks nectar from plant, carries pollen so plant can reproduce  Commensalism—Relationship between organisms in which one benefits, the other is unaffected o Barnacles on a whale—whale unaffected but barnacle gets resources, transportation  Amensalism—relationship between organisms in which One organism is unaffected, but the other organism is harmed o Ex: Stepping on an ant TABLE: TYPE OF ECOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS EFFECT EFFECT ON ORGANISM #2 ON HARM BENEFIT NO EFFECT ORGANIS HARM Competition (-/-) Predation/parasit Amensalism( M #1 ism (+/-) 0/-) BENEFIT Predation/parasit Mutualism (+/+) Commensali ism (+/-) sm (+/0) NO Amensalism (0/-) Commensalism Nothing, EFFECT (0/+) man. Nothing goes here. Unless the two organisms just wasting each others time completely  Anthropogenic-- chiefly of environmental pollution and pollutants-- originating in human activity.  Humans are about 20% of avg annual net productivity on Earth  As humans cut down forests and grasslands and burn resources, it decreases Net primary productivity  Biomagnification--the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more widely disbursed. o Toxins increase over time thru more consumption 


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