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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marjolein Schelvis on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 24B at University of California - Davis taught by Holoman, D Kern in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see INTRO MUSIC HISTORY in Music at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
MUS 24B Reading notes ch.24 Revolution and Change 1/19/16 7:04 PM The Nineteenth Century • Industrial Revolution transformed economy, bringing people from rural places to cities o Result- large influential middle class ; every aspect of life changed, including music. o Affordable pianos and sheet music (encouraged torrent of home music) o Musicianship became very popular and feasible as a career Revolution and Change • French Revolution of 1789 • End of Napoleonic Wars 1850 • As a result, old political order in Europe gave way to a new one o Industrial Revolution and middle-class entrepreneurship surpassed the old wealth of aristocracy o New societal idea about progress § Notion that technology, society, the arts, and other aspects of life were improving at an accelerating pace Revolution, War, and Music, 1789-1815 • The French Revolution o Inspired by enlightenment ideas of equality, human rights, and social reform o First phase (1789-92) – reformist, influenced by King Louis XVI’s policies and supported by uprisings such as the storm on Bastille, in which a mob of citizens forced the king to accept a new constitution for France o Second phase (1792-94)- government maintained control by executing rebels; Reign of Terror o Third phase (1794-99) – government adopted more moderate constitution, seeking to restore order o Napoleon Bonaparte § Army general and war hero § Consolidated power, crowned himself emperor in 1804 § Expanded French territories, ended holy roman empire § Abdication in 1814, returned to power in 1815, final defeat in Waterloo • Societal Effects of the Revolution o Utterly changed European society o Motto: “liberté, egalité, fraternité” o People everywhere saw the possibility of freedom, democratic reform, and abolition of rank o New concept of the nation: citizens with a common heritage and equal rights o This idea spread throughout Europe, giving rise to cultural and political trends that gained force throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries o Remade every aspect of French life, including music • Music and the Revolution o Revolutionary Hymns: composers wrote marches and symphonies for performances and fairs celebrating the revolution o Paris Conservatoire: music school founded by government in 1795, part of new national system of education designed to make training in any field available to all citizens based on merit rather than on class, became model for conservatories around Europe • Industrial Revolutions o A gradual change; new technologies began to transform the economy from chiefly rural and agricultural to an urban economy based on manufacturing by machine. o Mass production lowered costs and prices o Threatened traditional ways of life and enriched urban middle and merchant classes at expense of landowning aristocracy and the poor Ludwig van Beethoven • Known to be the musician whose career and music best reflect the tumultuous changes in the decades around 1800 • 1770-1827 • Grew up in Bonn, Germany • Father worked to make him into a famous child prodigy like Mozart; took him out of school at age 11 so that he could focus on music • Father sent him to Vienna where he studied counterpoint with Haydn • Steeped in Enlightenment ideals o Loved Haydn’s and Mozart’s work o Affected by French Revolution o Idealized and then was disillusioned by Napoleon o Endured occupation and economic privation during Napoleonic wars o Lived last dozen years under political repression • Youth: promising virtuoso pianist and composer • Forced to stop performing due to deafness • First musician to make a liming almost exclusively on composing • Pieces placed demand on listeners and performers, redefined what listeners expected and valued in music • Growing deafness, bouts of illness, political repression, and death or departure of many friends led to increasing withdrawal from society o His music became more intense, concentrated, and difficult • Three periods o First period (1770-1802) § Mastered musical language and genres of his time, found personal voice § Youth in Bonn and first decade in Vienna o Second Period (1803-1814) § Developed a style that achieved a new level of drama and expression, brought him enormous popularity o Third Period (1815-1827) § Music became more introspective and more difficult for performers to play and for listeners to comprehend • These divisions reflect changes in his style and mark crucial turning points in his life: a crisis in 1802 over his loss of hearing and a growing isolation around 1815 caused by deafness, family troubles, and political and economic conditions • His music was regarded as straddling the two camps of Classical and Romantic era music Bonn and the First Decade in Vienna • Grew up in Bonn • Late teens: began to make his mark as a composer • 1792: 22 years old, sent to study music in Vienna • Had rooms in a house owned by Prince Karl von Lichnowsky o Played in public concerts and taught piano students • Started selling works to publishers in 1791, although his first work to bear an opus number did not appear until 1795 • Successful as a freelance musician • Used strong contrasts of style or topic to delineate the form and broaden the expressive range • New approaches to piano composition o Use of frequent octaves, thick textures, and abrupt changes of dynamics Pathétique Sonata op.13 • Probably written 1799 • “Sonata with Pathos”....Pathos is Greek for “suffering” • Likely to attract buyers as composers and publishers found such evocative titles useful for marketing • One of Beethoven’s most popular pieces o C minor o Has outer movements of a stormy, passionate character around a profound slow movement in A flat major o Beethoven first evokes the depths of suffering and then suggests a struggle to overcome it • Movement 1 o Slow introduction “Grave” § Unusual for a piano sonata but common for symphonies o Main themes of the movement are energetic and determined, in the development the main motive of the introduction is transformed and assimilated into the character of the Allegro • Movement 2 o A flat major o Adagio, lento • Movement 3 o Rondo, Allegro o Equally serious and intense as movement 1 o Theme recalls part of the second theme of the first movement o Central episode is in A flat major, the key of the second movement § Creates inter-movement connections Op.18 String Quartets • Wrote these in Vienna • Influenced by Haydn and Mozart’s quartets • Individuality in each movement • Frequent unexpected turns of phrase • Unconventional modulations • Simultaneous invocation and subversion of tradition in these quartets and the stark juxtaposition of opposing emotions and styles became characteristic of Beethoven’s music. First Symphony • Symphony No.1 in C Major • Shows his allegiance to the model of Haydn’s and Mozart’s symphonies • Slow introduction that avoids tonic cadence • Careful dynamic shadings • Unusual prominence for the woodwinds • A scherzo-like third movement • Long codas for other movements Circumstances in the Middle Period • Reputation and patrons o 1803- pivotal point in career; new, more ambitious style o Gradual loss of hearing that devastated him o Received strong financial backing from patrons, connoisseurs devoted to his music o The combination of financial, social, and creative support freed Beethoven to follow his own inspiration (highly unusual situation for a composer) • Publishers o Publishers competed for Beethoven’s music o Beethoven followed Haydn’s lead in publishing works in several countries at once to preserve his rights and maximize his returns o He often failed to meet deadlines • Sketches o Wrote his pieces deliberately in notebooks with several drafts; tendency towards perfectionism. § Jotted down themes, worked out continuity, and gradually filled in details ú This is why he composed fewer pieces than his predecessors ú By composing in this way, he created music in which the relation of each part to the whole was remarkably sophisticated ú However, he could afford to do this because of his status, financial position, and compositional methods • Deafness o Psychological crisis o 1802, realized that the hearing loss would be permanent and would degenerate o Considered suicide o Resolved to continue for the sake of his art o Played in public less but continued composing and occasionally conducting o The pain of his struggle is apparent in his music • Music as Drama o Compositions reflected struggle, became like narratives or dramas o Gives impression of conveying composer’s own experience and feelings rather than representing the emotions of a text or operatic character or invoking generalized affections as was typical in earlier music o Treated musical material like characters in a drama o Extended achievements of Haydn and Mozart while replacing earlier notions of music • Style Characteristics o Continues to build on styles of Haydn and Mozart o Often expanded to unprecedented lengths, reworked in novel ways • Eroica Symphony o 1803-4 o First work that fully exemplifies Beethoven’s new approach o Goes beyond evoking conventional moods and topics o The heroism it depicts is Beethoven’s own: represents in music his experience of being almost overpowered by affliction, fighting against despair, and winning back his will to create. o Over the course of the movement, the motive undoes a number of transformations o Sense of struggle, achievement, and progressive change o Each movement reflects a different aspect of heroism § Movement 1: Struggle and triumph § Movement 2: Funeral March, mourning a fallen hero ú References to the French Revolution ú Originally named the symphony “Bonaparte” in honor of Napoleon, whom he admired as a hero of the French Republic; later tore up title page when he heard that Napoleon had crowned himself emperor § Movement 3: calls to battle (trio) § Finale: an invocation of Prometheus (the hero who brought wisdom, science, and the arts to humanity at great cost to himself) o Challenged listeners to think analytically about music instead of being entertained Other Works of the Middle Period • Fidelio o Beethoven’s only opera; he found it a struggle and never wrote another one • Chamber music o Five string quartets o Three piano trios o Two violin sonatas o One cello sonata • Concertos o Three piano concertos during his first decade in Vienna § Followed Mozart’s sty o Concertos of middle period are composed on a grander scale § Soloist is often coequal with the orchestra § Dramatic interaction between soloist and orchestra • Fifth Symphony o Considered the musical projection of his statement “I will grapple with fate; it shall not overcome me” o • Pastoral Symphony o Each movement bears a title suggesting a scene from life in the country • Peak of Popularity o 1814 o Celebrated as greatest living composer of instrumental music o Changed audience expectations for what instrumental music can do Circumstances in the Late Period • Forced into greater isolation, slowed pace of composition, and prompted change in focus and style o Deafness (1818 he could hardly hear at all) § Lost contact with others, became moody and morbidly suspicious even towards friends o Financially vulnerable § Currency devaluation in 1811 § Death of Prince Kinsky in 1812 o Family problems o Ill health o Unfounded apprehensions of poverty o Political and economic situation § Defeat of Napoleon in 1815 § Disastrous postwar depression § He was investigated and spied on because of his sympathy with the ideals of republican government as it had developed in France was now seen as a threat to the state Characteristics of the Late Style • The urgent sense of communication to a large public was replaced by a more introspective character, and the musical language became more concentrated • High degree of contrast o High seriousness and high comedy often side by side o Balanced with emphasis on continuity between movements • His An die ferne Geliebte, Op.98 (1816) inaugurated the genre of the song cycle, a group of songs performed in succession that tell or suggest a story • Variation Technique o Epitomizes late style • New sonorities o His search for new expressive means o Insistence on the composer’s vision at the expense of performer freedom and audience comfort- Beethoven became a model for later composers • Use of traditional styles o In later works, frequently used familiar styles and genres, either for expressive purposes or to reflect on tradition • Imitation and Fugue o Characteristic to his late works: use of imitative counterpoint • String Quartet in C# Minor, Op.131 o Reconceiving multi-movement form o String quartet illustrates how he simultaneously invokes and departs from tradition in his late works • Unity o While he varied the traditional sequence of movements, he sought ways to integrate the movements more closely § In op. 131, does this through motivic and key relationships • Appeal to connoisseurs Last Public Works • Reexamine traditions of respective genres • Reinterpreting traditional elements in new ways • Missa Solemnis o Began as a mass to be performed at elevation of Archduke Rudolph to archbishop of Olmütz in 1820 but grew too long and elaborate for liturgical use • Performance of ninth symphony o Did not hear the applause, so one of the solo singers pulled his sleeve and pointed to the audience, and he turned and bowed. • Everything builds on tradition, but the whole is unprecedented; combination of innovation with reverence for the past, of disparate styles, and of supreme compositional craft with profound emotional expression is characteristic of Beethoven’s last period • Symphony No.9 o Tumultuous intro, inspired by the operatic genre of accompanied recitative o Review and rejection (by instrumental recitatives) of the themes of the three preceding movements, then proposal an joyful acceptance of the “joy” theme o Orchestral exposition of the theme in four stanzas o Return of the tumultuous opening o Bass recitative: “O Freunde, nicht diese Tone!” o Choral-orchestral exposition of the joy theme, in four stanzas, varied, and a long orchestral interlude (double fugue) followed by a repetition of the first stanza o New theme, for orchestra and chorus: “Seid umschlungen, Millionen!” o Double fugue on two themes o A brilliant Pretissimo choral coda, bringing back the Turkish percussion in which the joy theme is hailed in strains of matchless sublimity Beethoven’s Centrality • Changed everyone’s idea of what a composer is and does; the image he fostered of a composer as an artist pursuing self-expression who composes only when inspired continues to hold sway • His works invited attentive listening and probing critical interpretation • New approaches in harmonic, motivic, formal, and tonal analysis MUS24 Reading Notes ch.25 The Romantic Generation : Song and Piano Music 1/19/16 7:04 PM The Romantic Generation: Song and Piano Music • In nineteenth century, music for the home and performance took center stage in place of music for the church or for courts • Market for music to play at home and the popularity of concert-going stimulated new styles tailored to broad musical tastes • Writers and musicians promoted new artistic ideals for music that focused on individuality, originality, fantasy, expression of pure emotion, and transcending conventional limits in pursuit of deeper truths The New Order, 1815-1848 • 1814-15: Congress of Vienna drew new map made up of fewer states; inhabitants of each part felt an increasing sense of belonging to a nation united by language and culture • Interest in national culture grew • Composers incorporated national traits in music • The eighteenth century cosmopolitan ideal was replaced by expectation that composers write music true to their national identity • Americas: 1803-1848 United States expanded west and south, began to create its own cultural identity (important names: Washington Irving, Nathaniel Hawthorne, James Fenimore Cooper, Stephen Foster) The Decline of Aristocratic Patronage • Economic order in Europe changed along with the political, dramatically affecting musicians o War and inflation impoverished aristocracy o Elimination of over 100 small states drastically reduced the number of cours supporting the arts o Typical musician lived as a free agent through public performance, teaching, composing on commission, or creating music for publication, often found a niche through specialization § Virtuosos ú Performers who specialized in one instrument and dazzled audiences with displays of technical mastery o Opportunities for careers in music broadened, in terms of education o As aristocracy declined, urban middle class grew in size and influence Middle-Class Music-Making • Money and leisure to purchase instruments and learn how to play them • Home music grew in popularity • Released social pressures o Expression of aspirations for equality and national freedom without risking censorship or imprisonment o Escape from wars, depressed economies, and political repression • A means of social control • Gender roles o When possible, servants were employed to do house-work, releasing the women of the family to pursue feminine accomplishments from needlework to music o Accomplishment designed to attract a spouse and entertain family and friends rather than as a career The Piano • Piano was at the center of home music The Market for Music and the New Idiom • Number of music stores in Europe and the New World grew rapidly in the early 1800’s, increasing in London from thirty in 1794 to 150 in 1824 • Technological innovations were crucial o Lithography let publishers print music cheaply with elaborate illustrations that helped it sell • Composers tried to make their music as appealing as possible o Tuneful melodies with attractive accompaniments o Little counterpoint o Uniform rhythm and difficulty level o Strong imagery o Evocative titles o National or exotic associations o Familiar chords and progressions o Colorful harmonic contrasts • Competition for sales fostered innovations in harmony • New idiom: Romantic style o High value placed on a beautiful melody and striking harmonies within small forms o Originality was now marked, not by how one treated conventional material, but by the material itself Romanticism • Focused on melody, emotion, novelty, and individuality • Transgressed conventional rules and limits • Focused on the individual and on expression of the self • “Romantic” as a period o some later music historians considered the whole nineteenth century to be “romantic” while others saw the entire span from the mid-eighteenth through the early twentieth century as a single Classic-Romantic period in which composers shared conventions of harmony, rhythm, and form but differed in how they treated those conventions. • Romanticism was a reaction to social and political events o Sought refuge in the past, myth, dreams, the supernatural, and the irrational • New distinctions among instrumental works between absolute, characteristic/descriptive, and program music o Programatic: recounts a narrative or sequence of events, often spelled out in an accompanying text called a program o Characteristic: depicts or suggests a mood, personality, or scene, usually indicated in its title o Absolute: offers an idealized pay of sound and form • Organic musical form: musical works are rhetorical, shaped like a speech and intended to have a certain effect on the listener; Artists should shape their works so that all the parts are unified by being derived from a common source; the organic relationship of the themes, sections, movements, and other parts of the whole becomes more important than the rhetorical structure or persuasive force. • Music was often accompanied by literature Song • The German “Lied” (plural = “Lieder”) : The quintessential Romantic genre o A fusion of music and poetry, centering on the expression of individual feelings, with descriptive musical imagery and aspects of folk style • The lyric o A short poem on one subject expressing a personal feeling or viewpoint o Meant to be sung o Expanded the Lied • The ballad o Imitation of folk ballads of England and Scotland o Might alternate narrative and dialogue and usually dealt with romantic adventures or supernatural incidents o Inspired composers to employ more varied themes and textures o Expanded the Lied in form and in emotional content o The piano rose from accompaniment to equal partner with the voice in illustrating and intensifying the meaning of the poetry • Song collection and song cycles o Lieder composers often grouped their songs into collections with a unifying characteristic o Songs were designed to be performed in order, as movements of a multimovement vocal work o Enables composer to tell a story trough a succession of songs, combining the narrative emphasis of ballads with the focused expressivity of the lyrical poem • The British and American “Parlor Song” o American version of the British ballads or “drawing room ballad” o Held important place in home o Verse refrain with piano preludes and postludes o Expressivity lies in the vocal melody with piano supporting the singer o Home! Sweet Home! was the most famous drawing-room ballad by English composer Henry R. Bishop • Stephen Foster (1826-1864) o Leading American song composer of the nineteenth century o Oh! Susannah (1848) o Combined elements of British ballads, American minstrel songs, German Lieder, Italian opera and Irish folk songs o Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair (1853) It early nineteenth century, the chasm between popular and serious music so typical of later eras had not yet opened, and all these and all these songs coexisted on a continuum in which popular appeal and interest to the learned did not necessarily exclude one another. Music for Piano • Three overlapping purposes: o Teaching o Amateur enjoyment o Public Performance • First category: Graded studies consisting of one hundred exercises of increased difficulty and the numerous etudes (French for “studies”) and method books by Beethoven’s student Czerny, any of which are still in use today • Second Category: Dances, lyrical pieces modeled on song character pieces, and sonatas • Third category: Features bravura pieces for virtuosos Franz Schubert • Marches, waltzes and other dances (among works suitable for public market) • Six Moments Musicaux (1823-28) • Eight Impromptus (1827) • Fantasy in F minor (1828) • Eleven piano sonatas • Wanderer Fantasy (1822) o Four movements, played without breaks between them; combine the general shape of a four-movement sonata (fast movement in a truncated sonata form without recapitulation, slow theme and variations, scherzo and trio, and finale with constant variation of a rhythmic figure taken from a phrase in his song Der Wanderer o Overall key scheme reflects his interest in harmonic relationships of a third (movements are in C, E, A-flat, and C major) § He was first to use circle of major thirds around the octave, idea was later adopted by Franz Liszt • In sonatas, he wrestled with contradictions between his song-inspired style and conventional demands of the sonata o Themes are typically expansive melodies that do not lend themselves to motivic development; instead they recur in different environments that suggest new meanings o Sonata-form movements often use three keys in the exposition rather than two • His approach to sonata form had a notable influence on later composers Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) • One of the leading German romantic composers • Grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, the leading Jewish philosopher of the Enlightenment in Germany • Blended influences from Bach, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven • Wrote music that combines Romantic expressivity with Classical forms and techniques • Combined contrapuntal skill and formal clarity with Romantic expression • Virtuoso performer on both piano and organ • Emphasized fluent technique over bravura display; preferred older style of virtuosity • Lieder ohne Worte (Songs without Words) o His best-known piano works o 48 short pieces grouped into 8 books o Exemplify Mendelssohn’s belief that music can express feelings words cannot, reflecting the idealist philosophy that underpins Romantic thought. Robert Schumann • Bulk of his piano compositions are short character pieces often grouped in colorfully named sets; his titles are evocative, meant to stimulate the player’s and the listener’s imaginations and to suggest possible meanings for the unusual effects and striking contrasts in his music. • Many of his pieces lack a clear harmonic conclusion or cadence • Interest in musical ciphers, codes within his music Clara Schumann and Fanny Hensel • Contrasting careers o Illustrate the prospects for and limitations on women composers in the early nineteenth century o Highly skilled pianist-composers o Schumann performed and published much of Clara’s music, while Hensel confined her music almost entirely to a domestic sphere o Clara Schumann was at first better known than her husband o Fanny Mendelssohn performed and composed in private, studied piano from a young age, and theory and composition in her teens. Musical career was considered inappropriate for a woman of her wealth and class. § Owned a salon with her husband; often she played there for guests § Her husband encouraged her to publish her works § Most famous work: Das Jahr- features a song for each month of the year Fryderyk Chopin (1810-1849) • Composed almost exclusively for piano • Revered for idiomatic writing that opened new possibilities for the piano and appealed to amateurs and connoisseurs alike o Études § 27 in all, twelve each in op.10 (1829-32) and 25 (1832-37) § and three without opus number § Intended to develop technique; each one as a rule addresses a specific skill and develops a single figure § Among the first etudes with significant artistic content and as such were often played in concert, inaugurating the genre of the concert etude. o Preludes § 24 of op.28 (1836-39) cover all major and minor keys § brief mood pictures o Influenced many later composers o Dances § Waltzes, mazurkas, polonaises ú Often composed for students § Although moderately difficult, show off an amateur § Show off ability through brilliant passage work and expression of a mood § Polonaise: courtly, aristocratic dance in ¾ meter often marked by a rhythmic figure of an eighth and two sixteenths on the first beat ú Often established national identity § Mazurka: Polish folk dance that by Chopin’s time had become an urban ballroom dance popular among high society in Paris a well as in Poland • Nocturnes o Short mood pieces with beautiful, embellished melodies above sonorous accompaniments • Ballades and scherzos o Longer and more demanding than his other one-movement piano works o One of the first to use the name “ballad” for an instrumental piece • Sonatas o His three piano sonatas have four movements § Sonata form § Minuet/scherzo § Slow movement § Finale • Chopin’s achievement o The distinctive characteristics of Chopin’s music stem from his life and career: Polish nationalism, the concentration on piano music, virtuosity for public performance blended with elegant lyricism for the parlor, and originality in melody, harmony, and pianism encouraged equally by the values of the salon and by competition in the marketplace o Greatest achievement was to liberate the piano from imitations of choral or ensemble textures and make it sound the way only a piano could sound, producing a whole new repertory of idiomatic sounds and figurations Franz Liszt (1811-1886) • Child prodigy • Solo Recitals o First pianist to give solo concerts in large halls; he pioneered the term “recital” o First to play a range of music from Bach to his contemporaries and to play entirely from memory (now long-standing traditions) o Reception and enthusiasm of admirers was similar to rock concerts of the twentieth century • Influences o Many diverse influences o Inspired by Hungarian and Romani (Gypsy) melodies o Adopted Chopin’s melodic lyricism, rubato, rhythmic license, and harmonic innovations • Paganini and virtuosity o Nicolo Paganini (1782-1840), great Italian violinist, was Liszt’s greatest influence. He was stimulated by Paganini’s stunning technical powers o Un Sopiro, the third of his Three Concert Etudes, illustrates Liszt’s virtuosic technique • Harmony o In many of his works, he employs chromatic harmony o Elaborate harmonic and melodic decoration of a dissonant sonority became a typical feature in late Romantic harmony and ultimately led Liszt to experiments that virtually abandon traditional tonality by prolonging dissonant sonorities without resolving to consonance • Sonata in B Minor o Masterpiece of formal innovation, using four main themes in one extended sonata-form movement subdivided into three large sections analogous to the movements of a Classic-era sonata § Double-function form • Paraphrases and Transcriptions o Much of hi music consists of arrangements § Operatic paraphrases/reminiscences ú Free fantasies on excerpts from popular operas by Mozart, Bellini, Donizetti, and Verdi, often retelling the story by varying and combining borrowed themes § Transcriptions ú Re-creations that brought important works to audiences who were either unacquainted with the originals or pleased to hear a familiar work transformed into a brilliant virtuoso piece • Liszt may have embodied more of the characteristics and contradictions of the Romantic era than any other musician Louis Moreau Gottschalk (`829-1869) • Celebrated for his audacity and showmanship • First American composer with an international reputation • The publication of pieces based on melodies and rhythms from his mother’s Caribbean heritage made Gottschalk’s reputation o Incorporation of American sounds and rhythms into piano works for the European market • Souvenir de Porto Rico o Uses a theme derived from a Puerto Rican song and features Afro-Caribbean rhythms o Perfect example of nineteenth-century piano music designed to appeal to the middle-class audience , combining an extra musical program, an exotic subject, novel melodic and rhythmic material, virtuosic showmanship, and rewards for the amateur performer. The Romantic Legacy • Redefined piano music; became essential to the repertoire of permanent classics for the piano • Music by women was treated differently in a century that expected musical genius only from men and regarded music as no more than a pleasing adornment for women • The melody-centered style of song and piano music affected every other genre of the nineteenth century • We now regard composers as artists expressing their own ideas and feelings Resources for study and review are available at wwnorton.com/studyspace 1/19/16 7:04 PM
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