UGA American History since 1865 - Drake
UGA American History since 1865 - Drake HIST 2112
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jesse mcconnico on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Brian A. Drake in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Presidential vs. Radical Reconstruction 01/20/2016 ▯ Setting: 1865 Civil War has just ended 2/3 – ¾ people live in the North, U.S. population is small (roughly 30 million) both North and South are agricultural 1 out of 4 white southern men died in the Civil War ▯ ▯ I. Reconstruction begins – putting the country back together There is much anger and conflict throughout the U.S. Unanswered questions o Who will be in charge of Reconstruction? First the Presidents (Lincoln, then Johnson) then Congress takes over, led by Radical Republicans o How far will Reconstruction go? Forgive and forget or long and drawn out? o What will happen to former slaves? How will they be treated? Does freedom require certain things? Civil rights, voting rights, etc. ▯ II. Presidential Reconstruction – the gentle approach Abraham Lincoln – “Malice toward none, Charity for all” o Forgive and forget approach o Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction - 1863 10% of the voting population from 1860 must sign loyalty oath to U.S. only white men voted at this time so this was a small percentage rewrite state constitutions to abolish slavery apologize o Problem with the Proclamation No requirements to aid former slaves o Popular idea of Reconstruction in the South o Lincoln is shot by John Wilkes Booth (die hard confederate) at Ford’s Theatre Andrew Johnson – worst President ever? o Southerner but NOT a confederate Mountain Man from Ashville, N.C. who considered confederates to be “rich white cotton snobs” o Only Southerner in congress who refused to secede o Continues forgive and forget approach to Reconstruction Only thing he hates more than confederates is Blacks o Requires wealthy southerners to obtain Presidential Pardon in person (signed by him) ▯ III. Radical Reconstruction – the get tough approach Black Codes – illegal to be unemployed, travel without papers, etc o Re-create slavery in a different way o Blacks can’t go anywhere without papers, which they don’t have and they cant be unemployed so they work on the same plantations, doing the same labor they were doing when they were slaves. Alexander Stevens – Vice President of the Confederacy is elected to go to Congress Radical Republicans – determined to stop the South from rising again o Dominate congress and take control away from Pres. Johnson o Make constitutional changes 13 Amendment – abolishes slavery th 14 Amendment – grants slaves citizenship 15 Amendment – Black MEN gain right to vote important to note – white supremacy dominates U.S. so many people, even Northerners are upset o create the Freedman’s Bureau set up schools, help Blacks transition Johnson constantly vetoed bills written by the Radical Republican Congress but they were constantly overridden o Military troops occupy the South o Impeaching Andrew Johnson Congress passes the Tenure of Office Act that forbids the President to fire anyone without approval of congress, knowing that he is about to fire Stanton. Johnson fires Stanton anyway claiming Congress cannot tell him who he can and cannot fire Congress votes to Impeach Johnson Unsuccessful by 1 vote but Johnson essentially loses all power he had left at that point and the Radical Republicans rule Congress ▯ IV. Redemption – the white South regains power Northerners abandon Reconstruction because they are now concerned with other things o Panic of 1873 – economic crisis causes focus to shift toward their home lives o Racism and death of radicals scare people Klan arises to intimidate Blacks’ right to vote o Legal setbacks Supreme court overrules Radical Republicans o Industrialization starts – focus moves elsewhere and Blacks are abandoned to their fate. ▯
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