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by: Makayla Austin

Microevolution FDSCI 210-01

Makayla Austin
GPA 3.793

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These notes cover the two day lesson on micro evolution and include several questions which will be on the exam.
Neanderthals/Other Successes
John S. Griffith
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makayla Austin on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FDSCI 210-01 at Brigham Young University - Idaho taught by John S. Griffith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Neanderthals/Other Successes in Science at Brigham Young University - Idaho.

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Date Created: 01/19/16
Microevolution Biologists talk about evolution. What is it that evolves? What does it mean? ­ Genes: the segment of DNA that provide the info for traits an characteristics o What we look like o How our bodies function o The way we act o Locus: the location of a specific gene on a specific chromosome  The gene for hair color is the exact same for everyone, it is just the  location o Alleles: alternative forms of specific genes  Location for eye color is in the same location, but does everyone  have brown eyes? The gene is eye color, but the allele is the  variation such as brown, blue, green, etc. o Homologous Chromosomes: 2 chromosomes in a cell that contain the  same genes an in the same location, though they can have diff alleles.  One chromosome is from dad, one from mom. o Population: an inbreeding group in a particular geographical area o Gene Pool: the total amount of alleles in a population o Allele Frequency: the percent that allele is found in the population  divided by the total number of chromosomes on which the gene appears  FDSCI W2L2 Microevolution  The study of evolution is all about understanding which alleles will be reproduced in the following generations  Across the board for all animals: who puts in the most energy for offspring? FEMALES o Peacocks: males must be attractive to get the female because they need to attract as many females as possible but females are able to be selective o Humans: In a study, all the males showed that they prefer women who are giving off a lot of estrogen markers because that means a lot of fertility. The females, on the other hand, were all over the place and the researchers found out that the women grouped together according to their menstruation. During ovulation, they looked for high testosterone, and around the end of their cycle, they wanted a patient, kind man  Mutations: the raw material for new alleles; new mutations will change gene frequency o What determines whether a mutation becomes more common or less common in a population? Selection  Selection takes the best ones and then amplifies or diminishes mutation  Genetic Drift: random change in allele frequencies over the generations, brought about by the change of events o Most powerfully felt in small populations o The founder effect and the bottleneck effect are examples of this o Its an argument in biological evolution: which mechanism is most powerful in driving evolution? Natural Selection or Genetic Drift?  Founder Effect: when a small group becomes isolated from its larger population o The new group will likely have a diff allele frequency than the parent group it originated from o Ex: Lehi and his family, Mutiny on the Bounty, Ancient Hawaiians, Pitcairn Island  Bottleneck Effect: a severe reduction in a population brought about by intense selection pressure or some natural calamity o Population is regenerated by the means of the few individuals left o Genetic diversity is greatly diminished compared to the original population  Without genetic diversity there are limitations to their immunity 2  Once the species is inbreeded enough, they have the genetic similarity of identical twins (the situation of the cheetahs in Kenya at the moment o Ex: Cheetahs; they were nearly hunted to extinction but are now starting to make a comeback  Gene Flow: movement of alleles between diff populations, changing the allele frequencies o Alleles are lost from a population when individuals leave o Alleles enter a population when new individuals move in o Generally speaking, more diversity the more variability, the higher the rate of survivability  Pitcairn Island is an example of which evolutionary phenomena? o Founder Effect o *ON THE EXAM*  Which of the following evolutionary processes is not random chance? o Natural Selection; it has a purpose, a cause and effect o *ON THE EXAM*  *Side Note: At what point after evolution is the species not considered the same as their parent species anymore? o When they no longer recognize each other as the same; when they don’t breed anymore  Quick Overlook of Macroevolution; lesson for next week o Speciation o Diversity o How plants and animals came about o It is estimated that how my of all species that have ever lived on earth are now extinct? 99% o Mass extinctions are a fact of life 3 o Background extinction (one species vs large populations) o Not just dinosaurs, many reptiles, any fowls o Did the creation end in the Garden?  If there were extinctions, then the creations were imperfect, which means that God was imperfect, which means that a perfect God doesn’t exist o Lewis and Clarke were charged with the duty to find a wooly mammoth because there were all the bones; they couldn’t find it and this lead to the acceptance of extinction o “There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the creator no a few forms or into one…” o Darwins tree of life 4


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