ANTH 100 First week notes
ANTH 100 First week notes ANTH 10000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Anthropology 100 Professor Richard Blanton Purdue University Spring 2016 First week of notes Primates - Prehensility (opposite thumbs, grasping ability, finger nails – sensory pad link digits to the main via sensory fibers) - Stereoscopic vision - Arboreal life, including insect chasing and leaf/fruit earing – non-specialized omnivorous diets Primate “Grades” 1) Prosimians (earliest primates, 55-65 million years ago) Small branes in relation to body size Large snout (olfactory communications, based on smell sensations, emphasizes possible facial expressions) Few vocalizations Little social grooming Tend to be nocturnal; no need for color vision Vertical clinging and leaping 2) Anthropoids (ancestors of monkeys, apes, humans; 45 MYA) Reduced face and snout (less olfactory communication than prosimians) More vocalization and facial expressions (up to 30) Full color vision in some species Larger branes in relation to body weight (more sensory and motor axons to and from vocal and visual organs and the brain) Monkeys exhibit more social grooming. Primate cognitive evolution: - Trade-off between cognitive advantages (e.g. color vision) and the energy and information costs of larger and more complex brains (“expensive tissue hypothesis”) 3) Hominoids (ancestors of apes and humans; 24 MYA) Apes: (especially from studies of gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans) Up to 70 communicative elements More tool use than monkeys (up to 22 categories) Increased temporal displacement in tool use and other activities (foresight based on mental representation or “mental time travel”) Imitation of complex tasks More cultural transmission than in monkeys (learned behaviors) More social memory of each individual’s past actions Theory of mind In hominoids social intelligence includes “theory of self and others” or “Theory of Mind” awareness of self and awareness that others may have thoughts that are different from this implies a potential for deception. Recitation notes: - Gene is the basic unit of transmission - Gene frequencies change over time: biological evolution Natural Selection – outcome of process that affects frequencies of traits in a particular environment. Variation: occurs within a population (some traits are more adaptive to certain environment than other so those are favored) Heritability: inherited traits from parents to organism Founder effect: type of genetic drift; occurs when small group is separated from population
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