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Psychology 100 Chapter 1 Intro and Research Methods (Week 1 of notes)

by: Stephanie Notetaker

Psychology 100 Chapter 1 Intro and Research Methods (Week 1 of notes) 100

Marketplace > California State University Long Beach > Psychlogy > 100 > Psychology 100 Chapter 1 Intro and Research Methods Week 1 of notes
Stephanie Notetaker
Long Beach State
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About this Document

These notes cover all of Chapter 1
General Psychology
Dr. Angela deDios
Class Notes




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Notetaker on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 100 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Angela deDios in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.

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Date Created: 01/19/16
Monday, January 25, 2016 Chapter 1 Intro and Research Methods Psychology 100: Dr. deDios Definitions of Psychology - American Heritage Dictionary: • the science of the mind or of mental states and processes • the science of human and animal behavior - Huffman and Dowdell: • “The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.” Scientific Psychology vs. Pseudopsychology - Which of the following is more true? • Birds of a feather flock together • Opposites attract - How do you know? • My partner and I are very different so it must be the 2nd one My mom told me to look for someone similar to me so it must be the 1st one • • Dr. Phil says it is the 1st one so that must be true - What does it mean to be a science? • Content seems less “scientific” we have the same process as other “hard sciences” • We utilize the scientific method Psychology’s Past - Wilhelm Wundt • Introspection - Edward Titchener • Structuralism 1 Monday, January 25, 2016 - William James • Functionalism - Sigmund Freud • Psychoanalytic perspective Modern Psychology - Psychodynamic • “newer version” • Stands for Freud • Freud compares the mind to an iceberg. - Behavioral • Learning Theory: The Behaviorist • Principles of learning are the same for everyone. • Animals / Humans - Humanistic • Free will (we get to decide what we want) • “Positive Psychology”: (How to be happy books) - Cognitive • Any mental processes (problem solving, decision making, perception, etc.) • All in the mind - Biological • How do our genes impact how we are? • Biology of Behavior • Brain - Evolutionary • Natural Selection 2 Monday, January 25, 2016 - Sociocultural • socio- social encounters • cultural- embedded within our culture • Affects how we behave, etc. (think/feel) Which Perspective Do You Agree With? - Biopsychosocial model No ONE explanation for behavior • So What? - Psychologists have different specialties - Do research related to that field • Generate knowledge • Understand behavior and mental processes - Utilize the scientific method The Scientific Method - Question and literature review - Testable hypothesis (educated guess) - Research design (how are we going to do this?) - Data collection and analysis (do it) - Publication - Theory development (helps explain something) How Do We Gain Knowledge in Psychology? - How would you find the answer to the following question: • Are people more likely to help men or women? 3 Monday, January 25, 2016 Psychology’s 4 Main Goals - Description • What happens? - Explanation • Why does it happen? - Prediction When will it happen? • - Change • How can we change it? Types of Research Methods - Descriptive • Naturalistic observation • Survey • Case study • Archival research - Correlational - Experiments Naturalistic Observation - Purpose - How do we do it? - Problems? - Alternative • Laboratory observation 4 Monday, January 25, 2016 Survey - Purpose - How do we do it? - Problems? Case Study - Purpose - How do we do it? (One person to a small group) - Problems? Archival Data - Purpose (use existive data) - How do we do it? (Using Google, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) - Problems? (No control on what data is collected, who was excluded) Types of Research Methods - Descriptive • Naturalistic observation • Survey • Case Study • Archival research - Correlational - Experiments Correlational Study - Purpose • Relationship between two variables (variable: anything you are interested in studying) - How do we do it? 5 Monday, January 25, 2016 - Correlation coefficient • Sign ( + or - ) = direction • Number = strength - Range from -1 to 1 Correlational Studies - Purpose - How do we do it? - Problems? • CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION! • Example: ice + murder • 3rd variable problem - AKA: confounding variable Types of Research Methods - Descriptive • Naturalistic observation • Survey • Case study • Archival research - Correlational - Experiments Experiments - Purpose • Determine cause and effect 6 Monday, January 25, 2016 - How do we do it? • Decide on - Independent variable (IV) - Dependent variable (DV) • Random assign to - Experimental group - Control group • Compare DV between groups Examples of Experiments - Asian females perform better on a math test when they are asked to think about their ethnicity than when they are asked to think about their gender. - People are happier when they are given money and they are required to spend it on others rather than themselves. Experiments - Purpose - How do we do it? - Problems? • Sample bias - Representative sampling - Random assignment • Confounding variables Experimenter bias • • Participant bias - Anonymity or deception 7 Monday, January 25, 2016 Big Difference Between Experiments and All Other Methods - Observational Study & Experiment Research Ethics - Institutional review boards (IRBs) approve proposed studies - Informed consent - Voluntary participation - Debriefing - Confidentiality 8


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