Week 2 of Team and Individual Performance Management
Week 2 of Team and Individual Performance Management BA 352
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Tucker on Tuesday January 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BA 352 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Chad in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Managing Individual and Team Performance in Business at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 01/19/16
Week 2 BA 352 Week 2 Session 1 Job Performance 10 Minutes for Happiness Various definitions of happiness o Subjective well-being: a person’s evaluation of the quality of his or her own life Evaluated in global terms (i.e., life satisfaction) and/or in terms of the overall balance of positive and negative feelings (in the course of a day) o Eudaimonia: The sense that one is living a life of purpose and value Does achievement make us happy? o It depends on what we mean by “achievement”… First, what does it take to be an “expert”? o Expertise takes 10,000 hours… or, approximately 5 years of full-time work. (Gladwell) We need to be patient, skills and tasks asked of you need time to learn o Additional hours spend on becoming “the best” (among experts) come at the expense of other things—socializing, spontaneity, trying new things, and generally living a rich life. Comes at a cost o But, maybe being “the best” in your field comes with rewards which will make you happier? Being “the best” pays less than you think o Extreme high performance has comparatively small effects on career advancements and compensation o Plus, being “the best” in one context doesn’t mean you’ll always be the “best” in another context—it’s often domain-specific. Ron Johnson is one of the best in retail—how did he do at JC Penney? Extreme performance in one area often cannot be leveraged for rewards in others Other downsides o It often comes at the expense of other people What to do instead if you want to be happy? o Be good or be an “expert” o Don’t aim to be “the best”—but if you do, always bear in mind the costs. o Recognize that varying your interests and skills can lead you to be successful in unanticipated ways—more innovative o Focus on your own achievements, but not to the point that it makes you and obstacle to the achievement of others. Definitions What is job performance? o Behaviors or results? o Can’t just be end-results: sometimes results are beyond employee’s control. o Does it refer only to how well you execute the tasks in your job description? o What other kinds of contributions to the organization? For example… Dale Murphy and the Hall of Fame A job is a role (a bundle of responsibilities) that you are paid to perform Job Performance o “the value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment Behaviors are within the employee’s control—a negative performance evaluation is thus fair. Supervisor feedback regarding behaviors is easier to implement, leads to better results. It’s not just about what’s in one’s job description—other behaviors matter, too. High productivity does not necessarily equal high performance! How would you define “productivity” It sounds the same as “performance” –but it’s conceptually distinct o Productivity-generating high outputs relative to inputs TO be considered a “high performer” at work, one’s productive behavior must contribute to organizational goal accomplishment. o That is, the behavior must be aligned with the org’s goals As an example of misalignment… o Director of Patents at Facebook files 276 patents in 30 minutes—but they are all for various components of a cargo ship that turns salt water in salt Aligning behavior with organizational goals AS a manager, how would you do this? Ideas? Caton, Murphy, & Clark, 2014 o Vision statements A vibrant, idealized “verbal portrait” of what the organization aspires to one day achieve Usually uninspiring o Our research suggests that manages should create vivid vision statements paired with few values (less than 4) What’s “vivid”? I have a dream that one day, on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together… --MLK August, 1963 Everyone interprets the goal in the same way when they are vivid. Facilitates coordination Improves team performance Example: Ekso Bionics (from 1:00) Vision: “one day robotic exoskeletons [will] be a viable and accessible option for the millions of wheelchair users who [want] the option to stand up and walk. Categories of job performance— Task performance o Task Performance (in-role behaviors): Behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces. Task, duties, responsibilities of a job—the things the company is paying you to do. For example: what jobs have you had? o Routine Task Performance: In-role behaviors you do every day o Adaptive task performance: In-role behaviors that are novel, unpredictable o Creative Task Performance: In-role behaviors that lead to outcomes that are both novel and useful. Citizenship Behaviors (extra-role behaviors): voluntary employee activities that may or may not be formally rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the workplace o Interpersonal citizenship behavior Helping, courtesy, sportsmanship (all indicators of good teamwork) o Organizational citizenship behavior Voice, civic virtue, boosterism o Why should orgs care about citizenship? Citizenship behaviors can improve organization functioning and organizational reputation o Why should you, the employee, care? Applicant screening and performance evaluations often take into account extra- role behaviors. o Critical thinking! When/where might citizenship not be helpful for one’s career? Counterproductive Behavior: Intentional behaviors that are harmful to the organization by directly affecting its functioning or property, or by hurting employees in a way that will reduce their effectiveness o Property deviance: Intentionally harming the organization’s assets and possessions (sabotage, theft) o Production deviance: purposefully reducing the efficiency of work output (using too much time or money relative to outputs, substance abuse) o Political deviance: Behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization (gossiping, incivility). Critical thinking: Upsides of gossip? Health benefits of gossip? o Personal aggression: Hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees (harassment and abuse). Critical thinking! How might personal aggression against co-workers harm the organization? Are people who do counterproductive behaviors poor task performers? Only a weak negative correlation between CBs and TP. Examples of high task performers who be terrible co-workers? o Heisenberg! Breaking Bad Relevant Economic Trends Service work o One of the largest and fastest growing sectors of the US economy (fastest job growth as of Feb. 2014) o Bad job performance is immediately apparent to customer. o Word of these negative interactions spreads quickly. Recent Comcast call over the news…. o Negative co-worker interactions are more likely to affect customers, too How to manage employee performance Management by objectives (MBO) o Joint goal-setting (between employee and manager) o Best when results are objective and quantifiable 360-degree Feedback o Performance information from everyone an employee interacts with at work (including self-reports) o Critical thinking! What are some downsides here? You have to asses yourself! Forced Ranking o Employees are ranked on a predetermined curve—like at General Electric o Critical thinking! Again, downsides?? Best Practices for Performance Feedback Give feedback frequently Recognize good performance through praise Focus on solving problems, not punishment Focus feedback on behaviors, not the person themselves Minimize criticism Remember that employees will share their appraisals with one another Week 2 Session 2 BA 352 Week 2 Session 2 10 minutes for Happiness Does being “otherish” make us happy? o Which would make you happier: spending $500 on yourself or spending $500 on someone else? o When people are asked whether spending money on themselves or others will make them happier, they almost always report “me!” But, participants given $5 or $20 to spend on another person reported higher SWB than those told to spend $5 or $20 on themselves People who spend a greater proportion of their income for prosocial reasons (gifts for others, charity) are happier than those who spend it on themselves or save it. o Possible reasons? Spending on others strengthens your social relationships with them and can improve their happiness, and people with strong social ties to happy people are themselves happier. o Maybe being “otherish” makes you successful? Give and take: The hidden social dynamics of success (Adam Grant, 2013) 3 types of interaction styles people adopt in the workplace: o Takers: try to gain as much value from their interactions as possible o Matchers: trade value evenly o Givers: are rare—they contribute to others with no expectation of a return. End up at the top and bottom of success ladder! Why? Possible reasons? o Givers build long-term relationships (“dominant ties”), and we don’t always anticipate who we might need a favor from later. o Givers inspire trust from others and positive reputation spreads. o Givers share credit, which also makes them less likely to be singled out for mistakes. o But givers may also give “too much” (in terms of time, knowledge, energy, etc.) Givers succeed only when they set goals for their own success at the same time they are contributing to the success of others. Definitions o Organizational Commitment “the desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization.” Affective: emotion-based reasons for staying Continuance: cost-based reasons for staying Normative: obligation-based reasons for staying o Focus of commitment The target within the organization that you’re committed to o Importantly, organization commitment is different from organizational identification OC and OI are distinct constructs Variables that are complex, unobservable, and thus difficult to measure. o Felt in reference to One’s: Company, Top management, department, manager, work team, and Specific coworkers. overall organizational commitment Self-concept and Our Various Identities o Self-concept Overall sense of self o Personal identity “I am a quick learner” “I am a great listener” o Relational identity “I am Jake’s bother” “I am Mitt’s colleague” o Social identity “I am a Catholic” “I am a democrat” o Role identity Work-based “I am a professor” “I am a retail manager” Nonwork role identity “I am a father” “I am a mother” Organizational identification o Social identification Developing a sense of “oneness of belongingness to some” social group (Ashforth & Mael, 1989) o Organizational identification The extent to which one perceives a sense of “oneness” with an organization A sense that the organization is an extension of you How can you tell how strongly someone identifies with an organization? One way: insults directed at the organization feel like personal insults o Why should managers care about OI? OI has a moderately strong positive relationship (0.27) with motivation (Ashforth et al., 2008) o Critical thinking! Downsides of identification? Organizational overidentification: complete “oneness” with the organization— your social identity dominates and your unique personal identity disappears. Solution? “Optimal balance” between personal and social identities Reduced stress, increased well-being (Kreiner et al., 2006) Is organizational commitment the same as organizational identification? o Importantly, organizational commitment is different from organizational identification. True, commitment has been defined as the relative strength of one’s identification with the organization But, this definition ignores the key difference Identification is about the employee and the organization becoming one entity in the mind of the employee In contrast, commitment is just about attachment—no fusion of self and object is assumed As mentioned earlier, identification (but not commitment) leads you to feel angry/sad when the organization is insulted (Herrbach, 2006) Withdrawal behaviors o A set of actions that employees perform to avoid the work situation Neglect A passive, destructive response Psychological withdrawal: daydreaming, socializing, looking busy, cyberloafing Exit An active, destructive response Physical withdrawal: tardiness, long breaks, missing meetings, absenteeism, quitting o Are withdrawal behaviors correlated with one another? Yes! Progression model of withdrawal: (all behaviors are positively correlated, more strongly within type) has received most research support. What influences organizational commitment? o Social networks affective o Time spent investing in the job continuance o Lack of other opportunities continuance o Embeddedness continuance o Org’s charitable activities normative What influences organizational identification o Many possible factors: A popular view, though: Any aspect of the org that enhances employees’ self-esteem will also boost their OI For example… Increasing the organization’s prestige or distinctiveness Elevating the organization’s image (e.g., through charity work or high performance) Broader trends that influence commitment o Increased diversity Members of minority groups and older employees may feel marginalized Foreign-born workers are less embedded o The changing employment relationship Downsizing Stagnant wages Breakdown of the “social contract” (i.e., work for one company your entire life and be taken care of in retirement)
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