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Biology 11100

by: Shayla Pedigo

Biology 11100 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo
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About this Document

Here's the first weeks notes. These are good for recitation quizzes.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Biology 11100 Notes CELL DIVISION {Binary Fission, Mitosis, Meiosis} Zygote- one cell Adults- 10’s on trillions of cells B. subtilis spore- 1.2 µm cells Bacterial colony- 10’s of billions of cells CELL DIVISION  Reproduction is a key characteristic of life  Requires 3 things:  1) Replication of genetic material  2) Accurate segregation of genetic material  3) Division of cytoplasm  Process needs to be controlled  Responsive to environmental conditions >What happens if cell division is uncontrolled? >>A TUMOR For example: melanoma, a type of skin cancer caused by uncontrolled growth of melanocytes. BINARY FISSION  Form of asexual reproduction in bacteria  Must duplicate and segregate genetic material  Less genetic material than eukaryotes have  Usually single circular chromosome  Simplifies replication and segregation  Replication begins at unique site  Origin of replication  Bidirectional to unique site: terminus  Replication and segregation are coupled  Once thought to be passive process  Now know to be an active process- controlled by cells  Also a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled eukaryotes  Allows regeneration in some starfish CHROMOSOMES Involved in eukaryotic cell division Chromosome nomenclature: Replication Has two chromatids Single Chromatid 1 chromosome 1 chromosome CHROMOSOME TERMS  Centromere: visible constriction  Holds (sister) chromatids together  Consists of repeated short DNA sequences  Kinetochore: proteins at centromere  Attach to microtubules during mitosis  Telomeres: ends of chromosomes, also specialized structures  Replicated by special protein: Telomerase PROBLEMS CELLS MUST SOLVE Chromosome compaction  Chromosomes are too long to fit into cell straight  must always be folded  Replication and chromosome separation occur at different times  Chromosomes are not “labeled”  Means must keep chromatids of chromosomes attached until separation  Release of attachment is irreversible CHROMOSOME COMPACTION  Chromosomes larger than cells  Chromosome must be compacted, folded  Complex with proteins  Supercoiled by topoisomerase  Problem for replication and segregation  Chromosome is also attached to plasma membrane EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE  Cell division in eukaryotes is under strict genetic control  Process is called the cell cycle  Can view as 5 parts:  G1: for first gap phase (pre-replication)  S: for DNA synthesis, centrosome also duplicates  G2: for second gap phase (post-replication)  M: for Mitosis  Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm into two cells 2 IRREVERSIBLE STEPS  Start: the commitment to divide at all  Commitment to DNA Replication  Can be from G o0 from previous cycle  Occurs before S: The G /1 boundary  Also called restriction point  Anaphase: the separation of chromosomes during anaphase  Once chromatids are no longer together they must segregate into two new cells WITHOUT CONTROL  Division with incompletely replicated DNA  Probably would be lethal  Division with damaged DNA  Could also be lethal, or lead to cancer  Cell controls cycle with checkpoints:  Points at which the cell cycle can be halted  Start or restriction point  G2/M transition  Anaphase  Fail to “pass test”: cycle halted CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE MITOSIS  Most familiar part of cell cycle  Functions to segregate chromosomes  Elaborate alteration to the cytoskeleton STAGES OF MITOSIS  PMAT  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase PROPHASE 1. Chromosomes condense 2. Nuclear membrane breaks down 3. Spindle is formed 4. Chromosomes attach to spindle METAPHASE 1. Chromosomes move to metaphase plate 2. Chromatids still attached at centromeres 3. Centromeres (kinetochore) attached to opposite poles by microtubules 4. Chromosomes pulled towards opposite poles ANAPHASE 1. Centromeres “divide,” chromatids separate (now called chromosomes) 2. Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles TELOPHASE 1. Chromosomes decondense 2. Nuclear membrane reforms CYTOKINESIS 1. Actual process of dividing one cell into two 2. Also divides cytoplasmic contents 3. Animals: Uses a contractile ring 4. Plants: Cell plate forms between cells


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