Chapter 2 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sami Schultz on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to exp3604c at Florida State University taught by Dr Jong-Sung Yoon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 50 views.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
CHAPTER 2 Our perception is influenced by our previous experiences Sensation is the detection of physical energy by sense organs o Detecting and encoding sensory information Gathering info from the environment into your senses Ex; detecting the color and shape of an object Sensory memory: 3 stage processing model o Brief sensory activations o Much sensory input never enters conscious processing o Two types Iconic memory (visual) Echoic memory (auditory) Perception o Is the interpretation of raw sensory input o Involves integration of outside world and one’s own inner world o Closely tied to thought and memory o Our cognitive system actively works to create meaningful patterns o We don’t just sense the world Sensation does NOT = perception Primary visual cortex is in the occipital lobe Primary auditory cortex in is the temporal lobe Gestalt psychology o Our brains do more than register info about the world o We constantly filter how we attend to sensory info o Gestalt perception of motion The brain perceives motion by comparing visual frames A rapid series of slightly varying images creates perception of motion This is another trick behind animation Object recognition o Template theory According to an early theory, our visual system compares a stimulus with a set of templates or specific patterns stored in your memory o Visual perception requires a more flexible system than matching a pattern using a specific theory o Feature analysis theory A visual stimulus is composed of a small number of distinctive features Compare new letter to stored list of distinctive features Eleanor gibson’s research Measured the time required to decide if two letters are different Limitations with deature analysis approach Complex shapes in nature Context Distortion of features o Context effect A given stimulus may trigger different perceptions based on context o Recognition-by-Componenents theory Irving Beiderman- a visual object can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes, namely geons Combining geons to form meaningful objects In general three geons are enough to classify an object Explains some portion of our remarkable skill in visual object recognition o Bottom-up processing Begins with automatic sensory detection and encoding; construction of whole from parts Emphasizes the importance of the environment and the stimulus in object recognition (what our sensory receptors actually register) o Top-down processing Conceptually driven organization and interpretation of information Experiences and expectations Emphasizes how a person’s concepts and mental processing influences object recognition Analyzing all of the individual features in the letters of words would be too much o Lapse in object perception: Inattention blindness Failure to notice that a new object had appeared because attention is focused elsewhere Inattention blindness reflects the failure to detect an unexpected stimulus that is fully visible in a single display Four characteristics o Fail to notice visual event o Fully visible o Unexpected Change blindness Failure to notice that something has changed from the way it was before Real world implications- driving; eyewitness testimony
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