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Introductory Psychology Lecture Notes

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Introductory Psychology Lecture Notes 10213

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > 10213 > Introductory Psychology Lecture Notes
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This is an outline of the powerpoints presented in class, all blanks have been filled in.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Repasky
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker Notetaker on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Repasky in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 185 views.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Lecture 1 INTRO TO THE FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY 1. WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY Scientific study of behavior and mental processes A. Behavior i. Any action we can observe and record 1. Smiling 2. Laughing 3. Writing 4. Walking B. Mental Processes i. Internal subjective experiences we conclude from behavior 1. Sensation 2. Perception 3. Dreams 4. Thoughts 5. Feelings 6. Beliefs C. Psychology as a Science i. Relies on empirical evidence 1. Empirical evidence – evidence that can be subjectively tested and evaluated 2. Psuedopsychologies – “Pseudo”=false a. Horoscopes b. Psychics 2. HISTORY A. Willhelm Wundt, 1879, Germany i. Father of Psychology ii. Established first Psych lab iii. Structuralism: First framework for studying psychology 1. Use of introspection to study sensation and perception, or basic building blocks of mental life B. Edward Titchener i. Student of Wundt who brought structuralism to the U.S. ii. Structuralism faded away – unable to study animals, children and disorders 3. PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE Unconscious part of the mind has thoughts, memories, and desires that lie outside of personal awareness but have strong influence A. Sigmund Freud, Austria, late 1800-early 1900 4. BEHAVIORIST PSYCHOLOGY Field that believes that scientific investigation of psychology should be focused only on behavior you can see A. Founders of Behavioralism i. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Pavlov’s dogs ii. John B. Watson (1878-1958) 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Little Albert and learned emotions iii. B.F.Skinner (1904-1990) 1. Operant Conditioning 2. Skinner Box 5. HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY Stresses a person’s capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose his or her destiny, and positive qualities A. Founded by Carl Roger (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) i. Humanists say that our subjective perceptions of the world are more important than behavior itself 2 6. COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Focuses on the important role of mental processes in how we process information, develop language, solve problems and think A. Ulric Neisser (1928-) i. Coined term “cognitive psychology” as the study of information processing ii. Developed ways to study mental processes 1. Stroop task 2. Priming 7. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive A. Martin Seligman, PhD – Authentic Well Being i. Positive Psychology Center at University of Pennsylvania B. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi PhD – Flow 8. GENDER & MINORITY INFLUENCES A. Mary Calkins i. Completed requirements for her PhD under William James at Harvard – denied degree due to gender 1. Prominent memory researcher 2. First female president of APA in 1905 B. Margaret Flay Washburn: i. First female to receive PhD in psychology C. Francis Cecil Sumner i. First African American to earn PhD in Psychology in 1920 D. Kenneth B. Clark i. Student of Sumner’s ii. First African American president of APA iii. Prejudice researcher 9. CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY 3 Study of how cognitive processes vary across different cultures – Which cognitive processes are universal and which are specific to different cultures 10. CULTURE Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people – transmitted from one generation to the next A. Collectivism i. Strive for group advancement ii. Sacrifice sel for sake of the group/family success iii. Typically eastern cultures B. Individualism i. Strive for individual achievements ii. Value independence iii. Typically western cultures 11. MODERN PSYCHOLOGIES 7 MAJOR PERPECTIVES A. Psychodynamic i. Major Emphasis 1. Unconscious dynamics, motives, conflicts, and past experiences ii. Sample research Questions 1. How do adult personality traits or psychological problems reflect unconscious processes and early childhood experiences? B. Behavioral i. Major Emphasis 1. Objective, observable, environmental influences on overt behavior, stimulus – response relationships and consequences for behavior ii. Sample Research Questions 1. How do we learn both our good and bad habits? How can we increase desirable behaviors and decrease undesirable ones? C. Humanistic i. Major Emphasis 4 1. Free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking ii. Sample Research Questions 1. How can we promote a client’s capacity for self-actualization and understanding of his/her own development? How can we promote international peace and reduce violence? D. Cognitive i. Major Emphasis 1. Thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory language, and informational processing ii. How do our thoughts and interpretations affect how we respond in certain situations? How can we improve how we process, store and retrieve information? E. Biological i. Major Emphasis 1. Genetic and biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system ii. Sample Research Questions 1. How might changes in neurotransmitters or damage to parts of the brain lead to psychological problems and changes in behavior and mental processes? F. Evolutionary i. Major Emphasis 1. Natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes ii. Sample Research Questions 1. How does natural selection help explain why we love and help certain people and hurt others? Do we have specific genes for aggression and altruism? G. Sociocultural i. Major Emphasis 1. Social interaction and the cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes ii. Sample Research Questions 1. How do the values and beliefs transmitted from our social and cultural environments affect our everyday psychological processes? 5 12. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL No one perspective on psychology can completely explain the complex human condition 6


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