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by: Regan Dougherty

NHM373Mod1PDF.pdf NHM 373

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0
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Module 1 Notes
Purchasing, Design, & Risk Management
Mr. Alvin Niuh
Class Notes




Popular in Purchasing, Design, & Risk Management

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 373 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mr. Alvin Niuh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Purchasing, Design, & Risk Management in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences


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Date Created: 01/20/16
Friday, January 15, 2016 NHM 373 Module 1 Understanding Foodservice Systems - System: collection of interrelated parts or subsystems unified by design to obtain one or more objectives - Systems Model • Input —> Transformation —> Output - Characteristics of Open Systems • interdependency of parts - integration and synergy (working together) • dynamic equilibrium - if one part of system is out of balance, the other parts of the system will try to re-balance it • equifinality • permeable boundaries • interface of systems and subsystems • hierarchy of the system - Unique Characteristics of Food Service Demand for food occurs at peak times. • • Demand for food may vary depending on the time of year and events. • Food production and service are labor intensive. • Both skilled and unskilled labor is needed. • Food is perishable. - When you have to throw out food, you are essentially throwing out money. • The menu changes daily. - ex. schools, nursing homes, hospitals (Patients/students are eating there on a daily basis.) • Availability of items - variety and seasonality 1 Friday, January 15, 2016 • A need to meet various prescribed “diets” - Challenges of Food Service • Scheduling employees • Production (menu planning) • Staffing difficulty • High labor cost Food safety • • Transportation • Budget limitations • Quality control • Customer satisfaction - Flow of Food • Menu planning —> purchasing —> receiving —> storing —> preparing —> cooking —> holding —> serving —> cooling —> reheating - Food Processing Continuum - the degree/extent a food item is processed by the manufacturer/producer for resale • “market form of the food” • ranges from none/raw (no processing) to completely processed • More skilled labor is required for unprocessed foods than for completely processed foods. • Unprocessed foods are at a higher risk for being unsafe. - Types of Foodservice Systems • Conventional - food is cooked and served on the same day - Foods can be bought at all stages of the processing continuum. - Advantages: • perception of higher quality • flexibility in menu items 2 Friday, January 15, 2016 • food served soon after preparation (quality is maintained) • traditional standardized recipes can be used (no need to modify recipe for chilling, reheating, etc.) - Disadvantages: • labor intensive • inconsistent quality • higher food cost • compromised food safety (more handling in the flow of food) • Ready Prepared - menu items are produced and held chilled or frozen until reheated for serving another day - Advantages: • Production can be scheduled at any time. • lower labor costs • Food is always ready and available for service. - Disadvantages: It is harder to change the menu. • • Menu variety may be limited (some things are not good when they are frozen and then reheated). • percieved loss of quality recipe modifications may be required • • food safety issues (temperature) • Commisary - centralized procurement and production facilities with distribution to “satellite” areas for final preparation and service - More of the ingredients are bought in a raw/less processed form - Advantages: • lower food and supply costs (buying in large quantities) • purchasing power 3 Friday, January 15, 2016 • ingredient control is improved • utilization of USDA commodities • lower labor costs • flexibility in scheduling food preparation • mechanization of preparation (because things are prepared in large quantities) • quality control (microbiological, aesthetic, nutritional) consistency • • better utilization of production facility • flexibility in location (The kitchen does not need to be by the facility.) • savings in equipment costs (fully equipped kitchens are not needed in every location) - Disadvantages: • high initial capital investment (building and equipment) • greater need for skilled employees • some jobs can be monotonous • equipment malfunction has more significant ramifications • transportation costs - insurance costs • perceived loss of quality • recipe modifications may be required • food safety failure has a greater impact on customers (because one kitchen is serving a large number of people) • Assembly/Serve - menu items are purchased already prepared and require minimal cooking before service - Premade food is generally more expensive (especially preportioned foods) - 3 common market forms of food used: • Bulk —> portioning —> heating —> service 4 Friday, January 15, 2016 • Preportioned —> assembly —> heating —> service • Preplated —> heating —> service - Advantages: • lower labor costs • less skilled labor required • limited equipment needs - Disadvantages: • higher food costs • menu variety may be limited • availability of menu items (items could become discontinued) • perceived loss of quality - Objectives of Food Production • Primary: effective synthesis of quantity, quality, and cost objectives - (produce food in the right quantity, of the right quality, and within the right cost parameters) • Secondary: - quality service - efficiency - customer service 5


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