New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

FSC 211: Week 2 Notes (Tu. & Th.)

by: Claire

FSC 211: Week 2 Notes (Tu. & Th.) FSC 211

Marketplace > Michigan State University > FSC 211 > FSC 211 Week 2 Notes Tu Th

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

In-depth lecture notes for the second week of class. There's a total of 8 pages. The format is an outline.
Principles of Food Science
M. Uebersax
Class Notes
food, Science, FSC, 211
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Food Science

Popular in Department

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FSC 211 at Michigan State University taught by M. Uebersax in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


Reviews for FSC 211: Week 2 Notes (Tu. & Th.)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/20/16
Week 2­ Tuesday: Pizza as viewed by a food scientist    ● Pizza is a metaphor for   ○ Food safety (microbial, physical, chemical)  ○ Food quality (specifications, measures, stability shelf­life) and you want it to exceed your  expectations  ○ Food value (nutrition, convenience, and experience)  ■ eg) calories, allergens, fat content may be concerns  ■ Every food product is personal when we eat it. So we want to give it food value  ■ We want it when we want it  ■ We want good value in terms of quantity/size  ● Context of food use must be considered!  ○ What is it  ○ How do people use it? (“anthropology”)  ■ We see in product development, much more focus on use of food and how they use it in  their kitchens and how they prepare them  ○ What are the technological challenges associated with the food product?  ● Use pizza as a metaphor throughout the class!    ● Who is consuming? How do they consume it?  ○ Women order twice as many veggie toppings as men  ○ Internationally popular toppings  ● Modern pizza originated from an Italian man trying to prepare a dish with the colors of the Italian flag.    ● Questions that food scientists ask?  ○ Is it safe to eat?  ○ Does it taste good?  ○ Is it nutritious?  ○ ­­­­  ○ What are the quality attributes? Specifications?  ○ What are the functional properties of the ingredients? Tolerances?   ○ Where are the critical control points? (what is important? Where do tolerances lie?)  ○ Production and quality protocols?  ○ Are we going to be in regulatory compliance? (be able to assure ourselves that we’re meeting  legal aspects­ wholesomeness, aspects of distribution/labelling)  ● Is it safe to eat?  ○ HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) program/concept run by the government  ■ Physical, Chemical, Microbiological (types of contamination during distribution and  manufacturing­ dirt, bolts, metal, etc.)  ■ A means of looking at what could happen and how you can stop it from happening  ○ GMP’s ­ SSOP’s  ■ Good Manufacturing Practices (They say “this is how we handle food”­ wash hands, tie  your hair up)  ■ Standard Sanitary Operating Procedures  ■ These are the pre­reqs to HACCP  ● Does it taste good?  ○ Appearance (size, shape, symmetry, color)  ○ Flavor (taste and aroma, formula and executions)­ what did we put in it and how do we make  sure that it’s delivered to the consumer?  ○ Quality expectations  ● Is it nutritious?  ○ Wholesome  ○ Specific nutrients  ○ Quality of nutrients  ○ Quantity of serving (more can be done with portion control than with nutrition content­ eg) lean  cuisine, etc.)    ● Principle Unit Operations:  ○ Size reduction: milling, cutting, sizing  ■ Cellular disruption (product can be stable in native form­ barley, wheat­ and you will  accelerate change   ■ Increased surface area...reactivity  ■ POINT: “Smaller the particle size, the greater the surface area per unit volume”  ● Surface area of flour greatly increases vs grain  ● Reactions are surface interaction phenomena  ● Reaction rates  ○ Blending: formulation “recipe”  ■ Critical to final product specifications  ■ Functional properties of ingredients  ■ Complexity and interactions of functional ingredients  ● Water, carbs, lipids, proteins  ● Flavors, leavening agents  ■ What we put in will dictate what we get out   ■ Increased reactivity if you add water to the food product system  ■ POINT: “Ingredients are foundation of product”  ○ Mixing: Energy input  ■ Mechanical agitation  ● Time of mixing and shear rate  ● Optimization of the time and rate  ■ Frictional heating as we mix (products will elevate in temperature and we’ll have to  control that)  ■ Increased interactions among ingredients  ■ Development of dough properties … (lecture on gluten later, because it’s expensive so  we will have to optimize our process so we don’t destroy the ingredients’ performance)  ■ POINT: “optimization of process is essential for desired performance”  ○ Forming and sheeting  ■ Fabrication of a product...size, shape, type  ■ Weight and density (regulatory)  ● Density is harder to achieve, because it has to be a certain density and a certain  volume  ○ Supplemental ingredients­ “distinctiveness of product”  ■ Addition of sauce  ■ Addition of toppings  ■ POINT: “complexity increases need for precision controls”  ○ Thermal treatment seen in baking  ■ Temperature and time (TxT) relationship­ the interface of them  ● Reduction of microbial populations  ● We’re going to expose the product under heating conditions  ○ We want to remove pathogens (that cause food­borne illness)  ● Physical changes in product characteristics  ○ Weight oss­ evaporation, density  ○ Textural properties  ● Increased reactivity of constituents  ○ Browning reactions­ maillard rxn  ○ Flavor development  ○ Increase temp, reactions go faster  ○ Cooling  ■ Rate of temperature change  ■ Condensation (as we cool, it contracts; as we heat, it expands)  ■ Shrinkage  ● Differentiation thermal properties of components (between surface and base)  ● Weight and density (regulatory)  ■ POINT: “post kill­steps are high risk”  ● Once we cook/heat the product, we reduce populations of organisms, but we also  made the product a better nutrient source  ○ Packaging  ■ Highly dependent on distribution chain  ■ Paper board vs poly film barrier  ■ Package sufficiently to meet requirements  ■ POINT: “specifications are always in the context of intended use”   ● Frozen foods vs hot foods  ● Over­packaging is a huge problem  ○ Freezing  ■ Air­blast rapid freezing  ● Rate of freezing  ● Temperature storage  ■ POINT: “rapid freezing = nmerous small ice crystals = improved product quality”  ● You’re insizing/breaking the cells of the food structure  ● Product characteristics will change if the temperature fluctuates too much  ● Rapid freezing allows only smaller ice crystals that will make less characteristic  changes (like mushiness)  ● While it’s freezing, moisture is leaving the product (freezer burn)  ○ Distribution  ■ Fresh  ■ Frozen “cold chain”  ● We have monitored and secured the product based on low temps  ■ POINT: “product must be maintained under controlled conditions..traceable and  accessible for market removal”    ● Food preservation: basic concepts  ○ Reduction of biological processes (rate)  ■ Low temp  ■ Atmospheric modication  ○ Lowering water activity  ■ Drying­salting­freezing  ○ Destruction of microbes  ■ High temperature (pasteurizing, canning)  ■ Radiation  ■ Advanced methods  ■ Organisms / pathogens that spoil or cause disease must be destroyed    ● Chemistry and Food  ○ Chemistry is critical to understanding the composition and behavior of food + food components  ○ Chemical reactions  ■ Intrinsic chemistry  ■ Environmental impact (amount of oxygen it’s exposed to, etc.)  ○ Chemical compounds  ■ Fxnl properties  ■ Distinctive quality ­ “color, flavor, texture”  ● Food industry only want productive ingredients  ● Consumers also want fewer ingredients  ● Organic chemistry of food  ○ Study of carbon chemistry  ○ Foundation of macro constituents  ■ Carbs, lipids, proteins  ○ They have distinctive characteristics based on chemical poperties  ○ Funxality of food is also affected by chemical construct    ● Primary compounds of food ­ MAKE UP the food product  ○ Carbon  ○ Hydrogen  ○ Oxygen  ○ Sulphur  ○ Sodium  ○ Potassium  ○ Iron  ○ Magnesium  ○ Nitrogen  ○ Phosphorus  ○ Calcium  ○ Chloride  ● Functional groups­ INFLUENCE nature and behavior of substances  ○ OH ­ alcohol  ○ COOH ­ carboxylic acid found in fats  ○ CHO ­ aldehyde  ○ CO ­ ketone  ○ NH2 ­ amine, amino found in protein    ● Biochem of food  ○ Living tissue (plant and animal)  ○ Metabolism  ■ Synthesis and degredation of food (biological process)  ○ Nutritional sciences  ○ Enzymatic mechanisms  ■ Post harvest physiology (ripening of F&V)  ■ Meat, dairy, eggs  ● Chemical reactions  ○ Oxidation­­ reaction with oxygen or loss of electrons (not wanted in food)  ○ reduction ­­ addition of hydrogen or gain of electrons  ○ Polymerization­­ formation of larger molecule from smaller units  ○ hydrolysis­ ­ breakdown/decomp.   ■ High fructose corn syrup, meat tenderization    ● pH  ○ Measure of acidity or basicity  ○ <7 = acidic (H+)  ○ >7 = basic (OH)    ● Supply of food  ○ Independents  ○ Large companies  ● Types and styles  ○ Fresh, frozen, square, personal, etc.  ● Milk protein = casein (lose physical properties at pH 4.6)  ● Packaging interacts with the product (temp control, water absorption, fat absorption, etc.)  DAY 2 (THURSDAY)­ Water in Foods  ● Summary   ○ General properties (structure, behavior/functions)  ○ Water in foods (various forms, functions)  ○ Water and food stability (moisture content vs water activity)  ● Water & hydration in food  ○ Water is very unusual chemically and physically  ■ Very common in nature  ■ Water has a high boiling point for such a low molecular weight (very low­ 1O and 2H)  ■ Maximum density at 4C (density decreases as ice is formed; volume increases­  Michigan pot holes and floating ice)  ○ Water molecule structure  ■ It’s polar →  has regions of partial charge  ■ dipolar  → positive and negative sides  ■ Therefore can form 4 H bonds with neighboring molecules (water and other polar  molecules)  ● Has two locatioins to make H bonds  ● Water is amphiprotic → can function as both acid and base, can either accept or donate H+  ○ Water dissociates to H+ & OH­  ○ So it can DONATE that H+  ○ However the OH­ is negative so it can also ACCEPT H+  ○ pH is negative log of H+ concentration  ­7​ ■  [H+] of pure water is 10​  and its pH is 7 (neutral and pure)  ■ pH is related to water’s ability to dissociate  ● Water properties recap  ○ Water molecules are electrical dipoles   ○ In liquid state, dipoles form clusters through H+ bonding and makes BP very high   ○ In solid state, water molecuels form crystal lattice (lower density than water)  ■ When the crystals form on food, it ruptures the food  ● Forms of water and food  ○ Solid  ■ Ice → low density solid  ○ Solutions  ■ Homogeneous → can’t be physically separated  ■ Two components  ● Solvent = greater amount   ● Water is a good solvent  ○ Due to its dipolar nature, inorganic ionic crystals   ● Hydration: solvent > solute  ○ Water’s charges can associate with salt’s charges and begin to pull towards itself  ● Solvents are a medium where many biomolecular processes can take place  ○ We eat apples when they are fresh, but that means they are still alive and biological processes  are still taking place  ○ Mature seeds and cereals grains have lower moisture; if this value is higher, more sprouting and  mold growth can take place  ● Factors that influence solubility  ○ Temperature, polarity of solvent/solute  ● Hydration: colloidal suspensions/dispersions  ○ Water aligns with larger molecules and SUSPENDS rather than dissolves them with H bonds  ○ Dispersion of 2+ immiscible substances (not true solution ­­ just mixed)  ○ Functional properties  ■ Water holding capacity  ■ Emulsification  ■ Foams and foam stability  ○ eg) Solution = solid in liquid (protein/Ca in milk)  ○ eg) emulsion = liq/liq (oil and water)  ■ emulsions are stabilized by EMULSIFIERS which have both polar (mixes with water) and  non polar (mixes with oil) regions  ■ ex) creamy salad dressing, chocolate, mayonnaise  ○ We want emulsifiers because there is so much surface tension that needs to be overcome  ■ Make it attracted to other things rather than to itself  ● Water in foods  ○ Ad​sorbed­ molecular  ○ Ab​sorbed­ physical  ○ Bound water  ■ Direct molecular binding ­ ADsorption  ■ No solvent action  ■ Cannot be frozen  ■ Monolayer of molecular water  ○ Free water  ■ Monolayer saturated ­ ABsorption  ● Water concentration influence  ○ Palatability (is it easy to eat)  ○ Digestibility  ○ Physical structure   ○ Technical handling ability(how to store with water present)  ○ Storage stability  ● If food deteriorates, it usually influenced by water  ○ Spoilage is caused by growth and development of microorganisms  ○ And by enzymatic or non­enzymatic reactions (chemical reactions with water)  ○ Because things move freely and food products with water are very nutritious  ○ Low water concentrations can affect physical deterioration levels  ● Water activity w​a​  )  ○ 0 to 1  ○ Lots of reactions will happen closer to 1  ○ Closer to 0 will make the food more stable (consider shelf­life, safety, and quality)  ○ Anything that holds water, the ratio will be less than 1  ○ What the food is made of will influence how water behaves  ○ The temperature will do this also  ● Moisture content and water solubility are not the same  ○ Moisture content = absolute amount of water relative to total amount of solid   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.