PHY 111 Week 1 Notes
PHY 111 Week 1 Notes PHY111
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Sampley on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHY111 at Arizona State University taught by K.T. Tsen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see General Physics in Physics 2 at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
PHY 111 Class Notes 1/11 1/15 Quantities: ● Length: meters ○ 1 meter is defined as the distance travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 seconds. ● Mass: kg ○ 1 kg is defined as the mass of a specific platinum iridium alloy cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. ● Time: second (s) ○ 1 second is defined as 9192631700 times the period of oscillation of radiation from the cesium atom. ○ 1 KHZ = 10^3/second Quarks = groups of subatomic particles Significant Figures: ● Accurate digit: can be confirmed ● Reasonably estimated digit: guess/rounded ● Piece of wood that appears to measure halfway between 5 and 6 cm = 5.5cm (2 sig figs) ● Manipulating measurements to calculate further measurements: ○ area = L x W ○ Rule #1: In multiplying/dividing two or more quantities, the number of significant figures in the final product (quotient) is the same as the number of significant figures in the least accurate of the factors being combined. ■ Ex 1: 11.2cm x 3.785cm = 42.392 → 42.4cm^2 ● Final answer should contain 3 sig figs because the least accurate measurement (11.2) only contains 3. ■ Ex 2: 27.8 / 11.472 = 2.42329… → 2.42 ○ Rule #2: When numbers are added/subtracted, the number of decimal places in the results should equal the smallest number of decimal places of an term in the sum/difference. ■ Ex 1: 123 + 5.35 = 128.35 → 128 ● Final answer should not include any decimal places because the term with the smallest amount of decimal places (123) does not contain any. Scientific Notation: ● Use scientific notation whenever possible to avoid confusion about significant figures. ● Ex: 1,280 → 1.280 x 10^3 ○ Both have 4 significant figures. ● IN HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT → COMPUTER WILL NOT RECOGNIZE 10^8. EXPRESS AS e+8. Conversion of Units: ● 1 mile1609 m ○ 1.000… mile = 1609.000… (same for the rest below) ● 1 m = 3.281 ft ● 1 in= 0.0254 m ● 1 foot30.48 cm ● Ex. Driving at a speed of 28.0 m/s. If speed limit is 55.0 miles/hr, are you speeding? ○ 28.0 m/s = (28m/s)(1.00 mile / 1609m) = 0.017402… → 1.74 x 10^2 mi/s ○ (1.74 x 10^2 s)(60s / min)(60min / hr) = 62.6 miles/hr ○ Yes, you are speeding. Coordinate System: 1. A fixed reference point, called the “origin”. 2. A set of specified axes, or directions, with an appropriate scale and labels on the axes. 3. Instructions on labeling a point in space relative to the origin and axes. ● Cartesian/Rectangular Coordinate System ○ (x,y) ● Plane Polar Coordinate System ○ (r, theta) ● y: opposite ● x: adjacent ● r: hypotenuse ● sin(theta)= y/r ● cos(theta)= x/r ● tan(theta)= y/x ● Pythagorean Theorem = r^2= y^2+x^2 ● Ex: (x, y) = (3.50m, 2.50m) ○ (r, theta) ■ r^2 = x^2 +y^2 ● (3.50m)^2 + (2.50m)^2 ● r = 4.30m ■ tan(theta) = y/x ● theta = tan^1(y/x) ● theta = 35.5* ○ Because terminal side of angle lies in Q3, must add 180* to 35.5* to find final answer ● theta = 216* ● Ex: (r, theta)= (5.00m, 37.0*) ○ (x,y)? ■ sin(theta) = y/r ■ cos(theta)= x/r ● x= rcos(theta) ○ 3.99m ● y= rsin(theta)= (5.00m)sin(37.0*) ○ 3.01m ● Ex: How to measure the height of a building with simple tools from the ground. ○ Trig. Chapter 2: Motion in One Dimension Dynamics: ● The branch of physics involving the motion of an object and the relationship between that motion and other physics concepts ● Kinematics part of dynamics ○ Interested in tdescriptioof motion ○ Notconcerned with cause of motion Quantities in Motion: ● Any motion involves 3 concepts: ○ Displacement ■ Position ● Position of an object is defined in terms of a frame of reference ○ ■ Difference between the final and initial position of the object ● Delta x = xf xi ○ xf, xi are positions/coordinates of the final and initial position of the object ■ Difference between displacement and distance ● Ex. Throwing a ball up in the air to catch it in the same place you released it would make the displacement 0, however the distance would not be 0. ■ Ex: xi= 30 m, xf= 52m ● Delta x = 22m ○ The displacement is positive, indicating the motion was in the positive x direction ■ Ex: xi= 38m, xf= 53m ● Delta x = 91m ○ The displacement is negative, indicating the motion was in the negative x direction ○ Velocity ○ Acceleration Position: ● ○ A choice of coordinate axes ○ Defines a starting point for measuring the motion ■ Or any other quantity ○ One dimensional, so generally the xaxis is used; x determines the “direction” HOMEWORK #1: DUE FRI 1/22 AT MIDNIGHT
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