PSY 310 Week 1 Notes
PSY 310 Week 1 Notes psy 310-03
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Poland on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psy 310-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Cornelius in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Behavior Modification in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Psychology 310: Week One of notes What is Behavior?: A muscular, Glandular, or electrical activity that a being exhibits What is modification?: To change. The systematic application of learning principles (most commonly reinforcement) to change someone’s overt or covert behavior. Actions are “overt” behaviors because you can observe them. Thoughts are “covert” behaviors because they are very difficult to observe. The absence of behavior is NOT a behavior. Dead Man’s Rule: If a dead man can do it, it is not a behavior. Example: the absence of talking. You can modify the behavior of talking, but you cannot modify the absence of talking. Increasing the number of reinforcers in an environment, such as a kindergarten classroom, is called an “enriched environment”. If you really want to increase a behavior, you need to make the consequence contingent on that behavior. Consequence must depend on the appropriate behavior. In this class, we will focus on objective, specific behavior. Labels sometimes are not very useful. For example, the word autism-many behaviors are associated with this word such as jerky movements, language issues, and social issues. So, you must specifically say which of these behaviors you would like to be addressed. Just saying the word Autism is too broad when talking about behavior. Psychology subdisciplines: Applied behavior analysis Behavior therapy Cognitive behavior therapy We will focus on demonstrating that a particular intervention led to a particular outcome. Applications of behavior modification: What can this be used for in the real world? Child management/parenting Classroom management (special education, general education) Developmental disabilities (intellectual, autism) Animal training Severe psychological disorders (schizophrenia, depression, anxiety) Health care (behavioral medicine, cardiac rehabilitation) Business and industry (organizational behavior management) Community behavior analysis (litter reduction, energy conservation) Sports psychology/exercise science (wellness programs, physical training) Behavior modification is applied across disciplines and topics Basics- PSY 101 review: Classical conditioning: there is an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), and a conditioned response (CR). For example: Pavlov’s dog experiment. UCS is the food, UCR is salivation, CS is the bell, and CR is salivation. CR and UCR are usually the same or similar. The CS is neutral at first, and then the UCS and CS are paired to create these responses. Operant conditioning: uses punishment and reinforcement; both positive and negative. Reinforcement: increasing the behavior. Punishment: decreasing the behavior. Positive: present something. Negative: remove something. Example: Student does well on a test, teacher gives the student a piece of candy. Positive reinforcement-candy is added to increase the behavior of doing well on the test. Observational learning: learn by interacting with others and seeing the consequences and emotions that they experience when certain events happen.
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