Module 2 Notes
Module 2 Notes SPED 7007
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
Module 2: Understanding Behavior Principles Learning Outcomes: • Explain: o A Functional Approach Assumptions of a Functional Model § Behavior Is Learned § Behavior Is Lawful § Behavior Can Be Changed • Apply the Functional Model to Student Behavior • Identify Key Features of the Environment o Antecedent Events o Consequences Readings/References: Germer, K., Kaplan, L., Giroux, L., Markham, E., Ferris, G., Oakes, W., & Lane, K. (2011). A function-‐based intervention to increase a second-‐grade student’s on-‐task behavior in a general education classroom. Beyond Behavior, 20(3), 19-‐30. Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Understanding behavior. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Video Clarifications: • Reinforcement: the word reinforcement always means increases • Negative reinforcement: increases behavior; more of behavior happens o Ex: putting on sunblock is negative reinforcement; putting visor down in car • Punishment: decreases behavior o Ex: getting sunburned; wearing sun block later in avoidance of getting burned • Research shows that decreasing behavior by punishment is not effective • Table 1: Functional behavior assessment required if student is suspended for more than 10 days • Table 2: Function matrix: why does a student exhibit a certain behavior? Always for one of two things: to avoid something or to get something • Figure 1: decision model-‐ what you’ll use for your FBA assignment Acronyms: § Discriminative Stimuli = DS § Target behavior = TB Chapter 2 Notes Introduction • Approaching behavior from a functional approach helps teachers intervene effectively • Definition: “determining the causes of behavior by focusing on events outside the person that reliably precede and follow the behavior, thus making it more or less likely to occur” • Basic principle of FBA: “behavior that results in a positive outcome is more likely to be repeated, and behaviors that results in an unpleasant outcome is less likely to occur again” – NOT referring to difference between positive or negative reinforcement; rather the positive or negative outcome • Assumptions of model: o All complex behaviors are learned: learned from an individual’s interaction with their environment § Learning occurs as a results of a consequence or by watching others § Children who do not experience the correspondence between what parents tell them and what happens will likely disregard what adults tell them in the future o Behavior is lawful, meaning the environment responds in predictable ways and does not happen haphazardly o Behavior can be changed by controlling and changing the when and why of the behavior Functional Perspective of Behavior Change in the School Environment • We must shift our focus from the student’s internal state to what happens when the student behaves in certain ways • First step: determine the operational definition of behavior (exactly what a person says or does), free of labels or judgments, by providing examples (student) and non-‐ examples (task) o 5 dimensions of behavior: § topography-‐ what the behavior looks like § frequency-‐ how often the behavior occurs § duration-‐ how long the behavior lasts § latency-‐ length of time that passes between behavior and signal/request § intensity-‐ how forceful is the behavior Definition of “environment” as a variable in the behavior change process • Step 2: determine what is going on in the environment when a student performs a behavior (antecedents and consequences) • Antecedent: “all things that happen before the behavior” and can be categorized into two types: discriminative stimuli and setting events • Consequences: “all things that happen after a behavior” and can categorized into two types: reinforcement and punishment Definition of Discriminative Stimuli and their use in both describing and changing behavior • Discriminative stimuli: events that occur before behavior and act as a signal to engage behavior • Stimulus control: behavior is predicted under one specific stimulus condition but not under all other conditions; developed by ensuring that reinforcing consequences occur when the correct behavior occurs The effect of setting events on behavior in classroom and school-‐wide settings • Setting events is a type of DS that occur far in advance of target behavior, which make TB more/less likely to occur • Help us understand why a behavior might not always occur when the DS is present • Can sometimes be altered to affect the behavior The logic and use of reinforcement in the teaching process • Reinforcement: “process by which a behavior is followed by a given consequence, resulting in an increase in the probability that the behavior will occur again” or more simply an affirming action that follows a response • Reinforcement always increases a behavior, either positively or negatively Both positive and negative reinforcement in the teaching process • Positive: something occurs or is delivered after the behavior o “contingent on a specific response, something is received, which then results in the behavior being more likely to occur again” o something is added as a result of the behavior • negative: something is removed after the behavior o “contingent on a response, something is removed or avoided, which then results in the behavior being more likely to occur again in the future” Both delivery-‐type and removal-‐type punishment as processes for decreasing behavior • punishment: “the process by which a consequence decreases the future probability of a behavior occurring” • teachers often give punishments as an attempt to decrease a behavior, but without knowing the true cause of the behavior, the punishment might in fact be a negative reinforcement, leading to the negative behavior happening more often • punishment can work in one of two ways: adding something or taking away something o removal-‐type punishment (type II): something is removed or avoided which results in the behavior decreasing o delivery-‐type punishment (type I): something is received or delivered which results in the behavior decreasing Function-‐Based Intervention Article: Case Study outlining the processes used to devise and implement the FABI Processes of completing an FABI § procedures to conduct functional assessment § completion of the function matrix and function-‐based intervention decision model § implementation of intervention components § evaluation of intervention outcomes Procedures to conduct functional assessment § Total duration recording procedures of replacement/on-‐task behavior § Functional assessments interviews § Direction observation in the classroom § Student-‐assisted functional assessment interview § Social Skills Improvements System-‐Rating Scale (SSiS-‐RS) Completion of the function matrix and function-‐based intervention decision model § Researchers charted A-‐B-‐C observations with day of occurrence and sequential occurrence on the function matrix § Used results of function matrix to determine functional assessment outcome § Results are then used in conjunction with decision model to determine intervention Implementation of intervention components § Intervention components are chosen from the method determined by the decision model § Intervention components o Antecedent adjustments o Adjusting the reinforcement contingencies o Extinction § Interventions were used in conjunction with self-‐monitoring and visual cues Evaluation of Intervention Outcomes § Teacher used intervention rating profile to rate the acceptability of the intervention § David was verbally administered an adapted children’s version of the same rating profile § Daily self-‐report forms were used to ensure treatment integrity For information on topics such as function matrix, function-‐based intervention decision model, intervention components, and A-‐B-‐C observations, see my week one notes for this class! Db Post Directions: For this post, write 2-3 sentences about how negative reinforcement works in your daily life.
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