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Module 2 Notes

by: Krista Notetaker

Module 2 Notes SPED 7007

Krista Notetaker
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 2 of our "Positive Behaviors" textbook and the required article for module 2. Notes are organized based on the learning outcomes listed in the learning module and the chap...
Positive Behavior
Dr. Todd Haydon
Class Notes
Understanding Behavior Principles
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Module  2:   Understanding  Behavior  Principles     Learning  Outcomes:   •   Explain:   o   A  Functional  Approach  Assumptions  of  a  Functional  Model   §   Behavior  Is  Learned                           §   Behavior  Is  Lawful                           §   Behavior  Can  Be  Changed   •   Apply  the  Functional  Model  to  Student  Behavior   •   Identify  Key  Features  of  the  Environment                           o   Antecedent  Events                           o   Consequences     Readings/References:   Germer,  K.,  Kaplan,  L.,  Giroux,  L.,  Markham,  E.,  Ferris,  G.,  Oakes,  W.,  &  Lane,  K.  (2011).  A     function-­‐based  intervention  to  increase  a  second-­‐grade  student’s  on-­‐task  behavior  in  a     general  education  classroom.  Beyond  Behavior,  20(3),  19-­‐30.   Scott,  T.,  &  Anderson,  C.  (2012).  Understanding  behavior.  In  Managing  Classroom  Behavior     Using  Positive  Behavior  Supports.  Boston:  Pearson.     Video  Clarifications:   •   Reinforcement:  the  word  reinforcement  always  means  increases   •   Negative  reinforcement:  increases  behavior;  more  of  behavior  happens   o   Ex:  putting  on  sunblock  is  negative  reinforcement;  putting  visor  down  in  car     •   Punishment:  decreases  behavior   o   Ex:  getting  sunburned;  wearing  sun  block  later  in  avoidance  of  getting  burned   •   Research  shows  that  decreasing  behavior  by  punishment  is  not  effective     •   Table  1:  Functional  behavior  assessment  required  if  student  is  suspended  for  more  than   10  days   •   Table  2:  Function  matrix:  why  does  a  student  exhibit  a  certain  behavior?  Always  for  one   of  two  things:  to  avoid  something  or  to  get  something   •   Figure  1:  decision  model-­‐  what  you’ll  use  for  your  FBA  assignment     Acronyms:   §   Discriminative  Stimuli  =  DS   §   Target  behavior  =  TB     Chapter  2  Notes   Introduction   •   Approaching  behavior  from  a  functional  approach  helps  teachers  intervene  effectively   •   Definition:  “determining  the  causes  of  behavior  by  focusing  on  events  outside  the   person  that  reliably  precede  and  follow  the  behavior,  thus  making  it  more  or  less  likely   to  occur”   •   Basic  principle  of  FBA:  “behavior  that  results  in  a  positive  outcome  is  more  likely  to  be   repeated,  and  behaviors  that  results  in  an  unpleasant  outcome  is  less  likely  to  occur   again”  –  NOT  referring  to  difference  between  positive  or  negative  reinforcement;  rather   the  positive  or  negative  outcome   •   Assumptions  of  model:   o   All  complex  behaviors  are  learned:  learned  from  an  individual’s  interaction  with   their  environment   §   Learning  occurs  as  a  results  of  a  consequence  or  by  watching  others   §   Children  who  do  not  experience  the  correspondence  between  what   parents  tell  them  and  what  happens  will  likely  disregard  what  adults  tell   them  in  the  future   o   Behavior  is  lawful,  meaning  the  environment  responds  in  predictable  ways  and   does  not  happen  haphazardly   o   Behavior  can  be  changed  by  controlling  and  changing  the  when  and  why  of  the   behavior     Functional  Perspective  of  Behavior  Change  in  the  School  Environment   •   We  must  shift  our  focus  from  the  student’s  internal  state  to  what  happens  when  the   student  behaves  in  certain  ways   •   First  step:  determine  the  operational  definition  of  behavior  (exactly  what  a  person  says   or  does),  free  of  labels  or  judgments,  by  providing  examples  (student)  and  non-­‐ examples  (task)   o   5  dimensions  of  behavior:   §   topography-­‐  what  the  behavior  looks  like   §   frequency-­‐  how  often  the  behavior  occurs   §   duration-­‐  how  long  the  behavior  lasts   §   latency-­‐  length  of  time  that  passes  between  behavior  and  signal/request   §   intensity-­‐  how  forceful  is  the  behavior     Definition  of  “environment”  as  a  variable  in  the  behavior  change  process   •   Step  2:  determine  what  is  going  on  in  the  environment  when  a  student  performs  a   behavior  (antecedents  and  consequences)   •   Antecedent:  “all  things  that  happen  before  the  behavior”  and  can  be  categorized  into   two  types:  discriminative  stimuli  and  setting  events   •   Consequences:  “all  things  that  happen  after  a  behavior”  and  can  categorized  into  two   types:  reinforcement  and  punishment     Definition  of  Discriminative  Stimuli  and  their  use  in  both  describing  and  changing  behavior   •   Discriminative  stimuli:  events  that  occur  before  behavior  and  act  as  a  signal  to  engage   behavior   •   Stimulus  control:  behavior  is  predicted  under  one  specific  stimulus  condition  but  not   under  all  other  conditions;  developed  by  ensuring  that  reinforcing  consequences  occur   when  the  correct  behavior  occurs     The  effect  of  setting  events  on  behavior  in  classroom  and  school-­‐wide  settings   •   Setting  events  is  a  type  of  DS  that  occur  far  in  advance  of  target  behavior,  which  make   TB  more/less  likely  to  occur   •   Help  us  understand  why  a  behavior  might  not  always  occur  when  the  DS  is  present     •   Can  sometimes  be  altered  to  affect  the  behavior     The  logic  and  use  of  reinforcement  in  the  teaching  process   •   Reinforcement:  “process  by  which  a  behavior  is  followed  by  a  given  consequence,   resulting  in  an  increase  in  the  probability  that  the  behavior  will  occur  again”  or  more   simply  an  affirming  action  that  follows  a  response   •   Reinforcement  always  increases  a  behavior,  either  positively  or  negatively     Both  positive  and  negative  reinforcement  in  the  teaching  process   •   Positive:  something  occurs  or  is  delivered  after  the  behavior   o   “contingent  on  a  specific  response,  something  is  received,  which  then  results  in   the  behavior  being  more  likely  to  occur  again”     o   something  is  added  as  a  result  of  the  behavior   •   negative:  something  is  removed  after  the  behavior   o   “contingent  on  a  response,  something  is  removed  or  avoided,  which  then  results   in  the  behavior  being  more  likely  to  occur  again  in  the  future”       Both  delivery-­‐type  and  removal-­‐type  punishment  as  processes  for  decreasing  behavior   •   punishment:  “the  process  by  which  a  consequence  decreases  the  future  probability  of  a   behavior  occurring”   •   teachers  often  give  punishments  as  an  attempt  to  decrease  a  behavior,  but  without   knowing  the  true  cause  of  the  behavior,  the  punishment  might  in  fact  be  a  negative   reinforcement,  leading  to  the  negative  behavior  happening  more  often   •   punishment  can  work  in  one  of  two  ways:  adding  something  or  taking  away  something   o   removal-­‐type  punishment  (type  II):  something  is  removed  or  avoided  which   results  in  the  behavior  decreasing   o   delivery-­‐type  punishment  (type  I):    something  is  received  or  delivered  which   results  in  the  behavior  decreasing     Function-­‐Based  Intervention  Article:   Case  Study  outlining  the  processes  used  to  devise  and  implement  the  FABI     Processes  of  completing  an  FABI   §   procedures  to  conduct  functional  assessment   §   completion  of  the  function  matrix  and  function-­‐based  intervention  decision  model   §   implementation  of  intervention  components   §   evaluation  of  intervention  outcomes     Procedures  to  conduct  functional  assessment   §   Total  duration  recording  procedures  of  replacement/on-­‐task  behavior   §   Functional  assessments  interviews   §   Direction  observation  in  the  classroom   §   Student-­‐assisted  functional  assessment  interview   §   Social  Skills  Improvements  System-­‐Rating  Scale  (SSiS-­‐RS)     Completion  of  the  function  matrix  and  function-­‐based  intervention  decision  model   §   Researchers  charted  A-­‐B-­‐C  observations  with  day  of  occurrence  and  sequential   occurrence  on  the  function  matrix   §   Used  results  of  function  matrix  to  determine  functional  assessment  outcome   §   Results  are  then  used  in  conjunction  with  decision  model  to  determine  intervention     Implementation  of  intervention  components   §   Intervention  components  are  chosen  from  the  method  determined  by  the  decision   model   §   Intervention  components   o   Antecedent  adjustments     o   Adjusting  the  reinforcement  contingencies   o   Extinction   §   Interventions  were  used  in  conjunction  with  self-­‐monitoring  and  visual  cues   Evaluation  of  Intervention  Outcomes   §   Teacher  used  intervention  rating  profile  to  rate  the  acceptability  of  the  intervention   §   David  was  verbally  administered  an  adapted  children’s  version  of  the  same  rating  profile   §   Daily  self-­‐report  forms  were  used  to  ensure  treatment  integrity     For  information  on  topics  such  as  function  matrix,  function-­‐based  intervention  decision  model,   intervention  components,  and  A-­‐B-­‐C  observations,  see  my  week  one  notes  for  this  class!     Db  Post   Directions:   For this post, write 2-3 sentences about how negative reinforcement works in your daily life.    


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