Class Note for MIC 205B at UA
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Infectious Diseases of the Nervous System Nervous System in a 39 CNS brain and spinal cord PNS peripheral nerves Cells are called neurons No normal ora Natural Defenses of the Nervous System Skull and vertebrae Microglial cells and macrophages Restricted entry into brain blood brain barrier for microorganisms medications including antibiotics immune system Nervous System Diseases Meningitis in ammation of the meninges membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord Encephalitis inflammation of the brain Meningitis Haemophilus in uenzae type b Infants newborn also E coli Streptococcus agalactiae Streptococcus pneumoniae Children 1 month 4 years Elderly Neisseria meningin39dis College students Streptococcal Meningitis Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram diplococci Virulent strains are encapsulated Children age 1 month 4 years Elderly Subunit vaccine induces upsunizing antibudy m capsule Meningococcal Meningitis in College Students Neisseria meningitidis Enters through nasal cavity droplets Incidence 2500 Americansyear 1015 die up to 20 longterm disabilities Subunit vaccine induces opsonizing antibody to capsule Naegleria Meningoencephalitis A rare infectiun Naegleria fowleri Small freeliving amoebas Found in soil fresh water and sewage Can be normal ora Protozoan feeds on bacteria but if introduced into the CNS can feed on human tissue Naegleria meningoencephalitis Acquired from hot tubs warm ponds and ground water at high temperature Children and young adults Initially infects the nasal mucosa Abrupt onset of symptoms 3 to 10 days after exposure to water Severe headache fever stiff neck and coma Naegleria meningoencephalitis Destroys brain and spinal tissue Death occurs within 10 days of the onset of clinical signs No treatment Chlorine kills the organism in spas and pools Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii Flagellated protozoan parasite Infects over 200 species of birds and animals Primary reservoir is cats Infection usually handled by 1 immune system y W Toxoplasmosis Acquired from contaminated meat or ingestion ofoocysts in cat feces Toxoplasmosis Causes serious disease in developing fetus Liver damage Brain abnormalities Blindness Serious disease in people with AIDS Prevention no raw meat no contact with cat litter box Viral Infections of the CNS Acute Viral Encephalitis Arboviruses West Nile Virus Encephalitis Western or Eastern Equine Encephalitis California Encephalitis La Crosse Encephalitis Herpes simplex 1 or 2 Rabies Arboviral encephalitis is prevalent worldwide Worldwide Distribution of Major Amoviral Encephalilides Arboviral encephalitis Results alter the bite ofa blood sucking insect commonly mosquitoes The virus is inoculated directly into the blood stream and grows in monocytes andor lymphocytes rus is released into the blood and can enter the brain nfecting neurons EEE Eastern equine encephalitis WEE Wasllm equine enuphllltls LAC Lacrosse encephalllis wn West Nile eneephalills SLE 539 Louis encephalitis VEE Venezuelan equine encephalitis Arboviral encephalitis is prevalent worldwide But each virus has its own locality due to its host in sect vector species eg culex species wva Most disease in the USA is mild with symptoms of fever and malaise and only occasionally leads to infection ofthe brain Most disease localities are known and controlled by via virus monitoring disease monitoring and mosquito control EEE Eastern equine encephalitis WEE Westm Iqulnl anciphnlltls LAC LaErcsse encepnalilis WN West Nile encephalllls sLE St Louis encephalitis VEE Venezuelan equine encephalilis Rabies ral infection from bite ofa furious rabid animal Animal rabies Wandering aggression biting salivating rus travels from the bite to the brain via nerves Thus variable latent period A fatal zoonotic disease Human dumb rabies fever confusion anxiety encephalitis death Rabies Bite 9Virus grows in muscle 9Virus enters sensory nerve ending 9Virus travels to cord brain 9Virus grows in brain changes behavior 9Virus travels to salivary gland and is secreted Where is Rabies Animal Reservoirs of Rabies Disluhulluno alorTevrestnal Reservoirs ul Rabies in the United States Diagnosis of Rabies Pe urmedviaapustrmunem gt i a a j autupsyun animals i Obsewingneumnalbraincells WlW intracyluplasmic I o inclusiunsWegri bums e ldenti catiunufR abiesStram iO Eat Skunk etc Rabid brain stained WW f Flumesoem antirvahies antihadv Rabid brain gained Wm Hemmaan and easin Prevention of Rabies organisms Hahn svims vannllnn HDCV nmclimlrdim t PetAnimalvaccmes Wildlife edible ban vaccines Yrulmcnl I ixsmxpnsuw pasmvc 9nd Ictwv mmummmu Euthamze km all rabid animals Quarantine biting aggressive Unvaccinated pets urpet animals lumen bywildl e Paralytic Poliomyelitis Neurotropic viral infection acquired by ingestion Paralytic spinal cord infection Effective vaccine PV123 Unvaccinated children are at risk in parts of the world like India Africa The unique stages of infection and pathogenesis of poliomyelitis Pulluvlrus ah nteruvlrus has an icosahedral Eapsld shell that preteets lt frum digestlun cl GI Tract Blood Cord gt ch Prlysls 11 mm Virus travels through blood and the nerves Arid eaeh piaee lrl the cord that HENE eeiis are destruyed causes paralysis ufthat pan ufthe budy controlled by thuse mutur HEUanS Summer epidemics in the early 1900s in the USA caused panic l m POLl MYELlTlS mam Keep out nfthis House quot quot quot quot quotmi Pehe m the USAm gml spuhee lhellvs1 human x m vaccines Eml rSalk milee Vaccine gm rSahm Mudmed LNE 7 Vaccine Poliomyelitis World Wide mun Iranquotmu mu 10
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