Class Note for MIC 433 at UA
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Arizona taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Flaviviruses Dengue virus Genus Flavivirus Lipid envelope positive single strand RNA E protein gt receptor binding 4 antigentically different serotypes No crossprotective immunity Dengue Transmission I Himarily a disease of tropical and subtropical areas I Transmitted by bite of arthropod vector Aedes aegpr Ae atopthis I Other vertebrate species generally not susceptible to the virus Dengue Fever Clinical Symptoms I Maybe asymptomatic or vary from a large range of clinical symptoms I Incubation 4 7 days Symptoms last 5 7 days I DF 9ever headache retro ocular pain muscle and joint pain nausea vomiting rash I DHF 9 continuous fever lasting Break Bone Fever 2 to 7 days hemorrhagic tendencies th rombocytopenia with hemoconcentration Pathogenic Pathway Dengue Virus Mosquito bite 9 virus injected into blood 9 Virus replicates in lymphocytes 9 Fever myalgia arthralgia rash 9 Slow recovery 9 Immunity to the virus Serotype Dengue Around the World I 25 billion individuals live in endemic areas I 50 100 million cases of DF per year I WHO estimates 250000 to 500000 cases of DHF annually I 5 Case fatality rate World Dismbunon oFDcnguc 2000 A mm mm m DC Dengue Fever Denguedengue hemorrhagic fever average annual number of cases reported to WHO19551998 mm m mm m mum mm mm ume quotwant Local Dengue Dengue on the US Mexico Border l Brownsville TX and Matamoros Mexico Local Dengue Dengue on the US Mexico Border l Brownsville TX and Matamoros Mexico Factors associated with infection Live near larval habitat Absence of air conditioning Hesence of sheet drainage Weekly family income lt 100 Dengue Spread to Humans Epizoolic cycle canopy monkeys Urban cycle W Cg H Aedes Dengue Aedes W WE 3E Mosquitoes Mosquitoes Aedes Dengue Aedes canopy monkeys aegypu aegypu Enzoolic cycle hens avallal Jungle Cycle Humans transmission Sylvauc Cycle Re Emergence of Dengue 1970 2008 From nearly eradicated in the SOs60s to epidemic spread throughout South and Central America Mexico Poor mosquito control Poor surveillance infected mosquitoes nurnan disease I Urbanization inadequate Water and sewer treatment increased travel nurnan carner Detenorauon of public neamn rntrasuucmre Focus on individual neamn not public health Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever DHF A severe form of Dengue resultng from a second rnrecuon ofa different serotvoe of one virus First serotvpe Dengue fever Recovery Second serotype Risk of DHF There are four serotvoes Pathogenic Pathway Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Mosquito bite 9 virus injected into blood 9 rus replicates in lymphocytes 9 Fever myalgia arthralgia rash 9 Slow recovery 9 Immunity to the virus Serotype Mosquito bite Seoond serotype injected into blood 9 Enhanced replication severe disease hemorrhage cardiovascular shock Flaviviruss Similar Genomes Different Different Diseases Biology Three Flaviviruses Similar Transmission Different Diseases Gene expression model Back to he Large Polyprotein model Gene expression model RNA Expression lvtulavlzatlan Evolutionary rates mow nun n nnwnwnmmmnl Wm nnn Yellow Fever Ancient Geography and Origin Canopy monkeys YFV Cycle Cg Aedes Aedes Mosqul toes Mosqul toes E Canopy monkeys Jungle Cycle Sylvauc Cycle Afrlca wnlte mans grave Yellow Fever Geography r h Mosqurto arvae earned m shrp39s Water paners spread dne Wu to dne Amerrcas A new cyde m Soodn Amerrcan monkeys YF Spread to Humans Canopy monkeys yrv Cycre Aedes Aedes Humarvs ltI Mosddtoes Npsddtoes Forrest Edge j Canopy monkeys Jongre Cycre Syryauc Cyde Spread of YF Vertically In Mosquitoes Canopy monkeys Infected VFV Cycle Cg Aedes Aedes Aedes Mosqurtoes Mosqurtoes Mosqurtoes Trans oyanar Transmrssron Canopy monkeys Infected Mosqurto syyauc Cycre eggs arvae Yellow Fever Cass 19922004 6 3 LJapanese Encephalitis Cases Aedesjapanicus 1986790 West Nile Virus Mosquito bite 9 virus injected into blood 9 Virus replicates in lymphocytes 9 Fever myalgia Virus spreads to the brain neurons encephalitis meningitis headache confusion 5 9 Slow recovery post neuronal infection 9 Immunity to the virus One Serotype West Nile virus Introduction and Spread in the USA Initial outbreak New York Death of the WNV Introduction and Spread Human Cases ijd 39 vs Year 1 WNV Introduction and Spread Birds Dead 2003 V u 10 WNV Spread to Humans Birds WNV Cycle Culex Culex Humans ltl mosquitoes mosquims Horses Other mammals E El Birds lt9 Trans ovariai transmission Migrating Birds Vertebrates Vectors of Horse Birds Exam WN V Anode 17312 Lita 95 Deg Spread min WEquot Dmvpadamys an73995 shew Rmky mnumm amaze IveWe gm RENE Vertebrates MEET Liama 39 WW in m m mm In the USA isthmus Wm mm me as Mammm a MWMWW Rim 04 wa W W Vectors in gmwmn mm cm magma rm the USA pawn Big brow bat PSWWwn fem Lime brown bat owonumi z pete Gvev smmei 1355 WWW Fox sminei 39 5 WM Eastern hipmurk 55152 13 Emma skunk waninhdt amban Dumsnmbm mumm Niigsf v gquot mm mtm H3 mg m M W Sil i i f WNV Spread to Humans Cases Neuror Deaths Case STATES invasive Fataiig New York 1999 62 59 7 12 4 New England smms 2000 21 19 2 11 and Caribbean 21 East Central Smtes and Canada 2001 17 Midwest Slams 2002 4156 2964 284 10 11 CenlIal Plains Slates California 2 Western Smtes 2004 25 38 1142 100 9 2005 3000 1295 119 9 2006 4261 1455 194 12 11 Puzzle How do sick birds migrate and carry lhe virus Puzzle How do sick birds migrate and carry the virus I The majority of the migrating birds have high virus loads but do not get sick I Studies show that WNV virus has no effect on migration behavior I Nor dos migration behavior have any effect on WNV load Puzzle 2 There is virtually no neuroinvasive disease in he Caribbean despite widespread human infection Theories Birds infected Winn a more viruient epidemic strain do not migrate No Tnere is numan immunity due to other reiated Fiaviviruses Probabiy Dengue SLE vr liheus Rama ativamve mas Navamai Bussuquava Intrinsic or extrinsic factors associated Witn tine nost or environment 7 temperamre mosquito vectors secondary nose and 77 777 12 Percentage of population infected wim Hep C The Pstivirus BVDV 14
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