HIST 111, Week 1 Notes
HIST 111, Week 1 Notes History 111
Popular in United States History to 1865
Popular in History
This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
HIST 111: US History to 1865 IN CLASS NOTES 1/12/16 • Early History of the North American Continent o “Encounter the world from native territory” o Estimates of how long humans have been on the continent vary ▯ Some as early as 40,000 years ago ▯ People migrated from Asia via the bearing straight (between Siberia and Alaska) • Took hundreds or even thousands of years • How do we know this? Genetic, linguistic and dental evidence o Native American people believe ancestors have always been here o California ▯ Coastal regions supported large groups of hunter/gatherers who cultivated 1 crop: Tobacco ▯ Harvested an abundance of natural foods • Acorns were part of the diet ▯ This lifestyle was extremely sophisticated • Very diverse culture ▯ Northwest pacific coast they were harvesting fish and other marine recourses 5000 years ago o Columbia Plateau (between cascade and rocky mountain) ▯ Lived on fish, particularly salmon ▯ Buffalo hunting on the plains o Arizona, New Mexico border Mongolian people grew corn and squash ▯ More traditional crops • Corn first cultivated in Mexico ▯ Built multi-‐apartment structures above ground • Huge ▯ People were drinking chocolate • Proves trade with Mexico for over 1000 years o Midwest-‐East Coast ▯ System of agriculture (sacred 3 sisters) • Corn o 8650 (Illinois) • Beans • Squash o 5000 BC (Illinois) ▯ Mound Builders • Mounds are pyramids • Watson break mound (oldest in America) • Poverty point in Mississippi o 1500 BC o Crossroads of commerce b/c near Mississippi river o Founding of Mississippi culture ▯ 700 BC ▯ Cahokia outside of St. Louis • Largest settlement north of Rio Grande o Until surpassed by New York • Elite rulers controlled the distribution of food and were buried ceremoniously • Monk’s Mound • Disappeared due to floods and earthquake in 13 century • Growing population exhausted natural resources • Growing social unrest in 14 century o Who are the heirs to the civilizations ▯ Mississippi = Cherokee, creeks, ect. ▯ 1/14/16 Review • “Facing East From Indian Country” o Taking the encounters of the people of America’s, Africa, and Europe and looking at it from a Native American perspective. o This allows individuals to be empathetic towards the Native Americans. • Mississippi Valley Civilization o Civilization that flourished in the Mississippi valley, also known as the mound builders. o Opened up the investigation of larger civilizations in the America’s • “Sacred Three Sisters” o They are corn, beans, and squash. o They are the main foods produced by the eastern civilizations, and other communities throughout the country. • Identify picture of Cahokia o Largest civilization in America north of the Rio Grande. o Aztecs were the largest. o Demonstrated the wealth and power of early civilizations o Cahokia founded which cultures: Cherokee, Choctaw, Creeks, Chickasaws, ect The Non American World: Pre 1492 • Citizens had already formed a world system • Historians labeled places as central or periphery • Center of native North America o South west and Mississippi valley • Indian Subcontinent and the societies in Mongolia was center at the time o This is b/c Europe was isolated from the trade route so were periphery • 1250-‐1350 the empire of Genghis Khan allowed Europe to become part of trade route again • Land travel was more expensive yet preferred because safer o More sanitary than sea travel (scurvy) • Carolingian Renaissance: when Europe opens up to trade since fall of Rome o By 1492 the Mongolian empire falls apart so policing power is gone o The fall of Constantinople (last vestiges of Roman Empire) falls to the ottoman empire in 1453 ▯ Therefore Europe was preoccupied • North Africa had been in contact with Europe since ancient times • Africa connects to the world from the East Coast o Lots of trade between Asia and Africa (instead of Europe) o Gold trade comes from Africa in the west sub-‐Saharan desert (modern country of Ghana) • Europe had a very complex trading structure o Banking was invented in this time period to find a solution to trading goods across far systems ▯ Came up with a system of credit • It was possible to trade from Constantinople and avoid the ottoman empire o This propped up the very lucrative slave trade • Jenowa was key city in slave trade o Must get to black sea to trade o Established a fort called Jaffa on black sea coast (modern day eastern Europe) ▯ Trade from Jaffa to Cairo • Slaves needed for military role o Mongol people • Also got slaves from sub-‐Saharan Africa • Metteci family lived in city states • During crusades Europeans encountered sugar and really liked it • After black death in mid 1300s there was a labor shortage o Killed 1/3 of Europe’s population o Mostly enslaved from the Balkans ▯ European Slave Coast • Slavery came in all colors and was focused on Urban centers • Catholic church officially disapproved of Christians being sold to Muslims o No issue with Christians owning Christians, just didn’t want conversion • You see Christian intellectuals set out to learn Arabic • 1293 the Quran was translated to English • When Columbus is reaching the Americas they are doing so in rivalry of the Ottoman Empire • 1492 had political and religious rivalry The Columbian Encounter • The Columbian Encounter/Exchange (Ecological Imperialism): Columbus’ 4 voyages beginning in 1492 o Subsequent interconnections between Africa, Asia, Americas, Europe • Plant animal and diseases were cut off from America’s due to isolation • Residents of the western hemisphere were shocked by discovery of Americas • Atlantic Ocean had many names Ethiopian Sea and other things o Middle of 18 century was when the term Atlantic started being used • Before arrival of Spanish there were no sheep in Americas • Before European travels there was no tobacco, tomatoes, and corn in Europe • Should it be celebrated? Brought new cultures and goods Disease • Disease shaped the landscape of America more than conquest • ½ million people lived on Hispaniola when explorers arrived o 50 years later only 2000 inhabitants • 1540s exploration of south Carolina found that smallpox had devastated native population • Many diseases killed inhabitants on the coast north of Cape Cod • 1500s was the beginning of when we see Syphilis o Carried by sailors, prostitutes, soldiers • Viral hepatitis and measles were also an issue • Big killer of the day was Smallpox o Spread primarily through human contact • Smallpox is a viral infection which enters the body through mouth and throat, goes to lungs and then into the lymphatic system • Large pustules then begin to form o hands and face and then spreads throughout the body o Pustules are filled with smallpox and when punctures spreads smallpox o Incubation period is 12 days which means people would infect each other without knowing they had it • Reached America by infected African Slave on a Spanish ship • Because thousands of years farming in Europe many people were spared with immunity o However terrible childhood disease, 80% of deaths were under 2 years old • Americas had no domesticated animals which led to virgin soil epidemic FROM THE BOOK Chapter 1: The New World Intro • Humans have lived on the Americas for over 10 millennia The First Americans • Last ice age trapped worlds water in huge glaciers • With water trapped there was a land bridge between Asia and North America across the Bering strait o First Americans migrated between 12 and 20 thousand years ago • Hunter-‐gatherers followed megafauna (bison and horses) into the frozen edge of north America • By 11,000 years ago migrating peoples reached the tip of south America o Hunting boomed • Native populations soon became hunters and gatherers and moved across north America o Rich and diverse diets fueled massive population growth across the continent • Between 2 and 18 million people lived north of Mexico before the arrival of Europeans • Agriculture arose sometime between 9 and 5 thousand years ago o First domesticated corn • In river valleys between Mississippi river and Atlantic ocean 3 crops flourished o Corn o Beans o Squash • Different areas had different cultivation methods • Agriculture lead to a decline in health but had many important benefits o Farmers produced more food than hunters allowing some members of the community to gain other skills ▯ Ex: religious leader, soldier, artists • Social Stratification was partly preserved through frequent warfare o War captives could be enslaved and played an important role in the economy o Slavery was considered lack of kinship not property and therefore slavery would be ended by adoption or marriage • Missippians developed the largest and most advanced native civilization north of modern day Mexico o Cahokia peaked at 10-‐30 thousand people o Around the year 1050 Cahokia experienced the “Big bang” and saw a 500% increase in population in only one generation o Cahokia was around 2,000 acres spanning from the Great Lakes to the American Southeast o Religious ceremonies were performed atop “mounds” ▯ Monks Mound was the largest and was 10 stories tall o By 1300 the powerful city of Cahokia had collapsed • Between 900 and 1300 ancient Puebloan people built a civilization sustained by irrigation and a vast trading network o 15,000 people lived in Chaco Canyon Complex (modern day new Mexico) o Pueblo Bonitio, one building, was over two acres wide and 5 stories tall ▯ No bigger building in Americas till late 19 century o Decline likely droughts, overpopulation and soil exhaustion • In Pacific Northwest social status was achieved through giving elaborate feasts called potlaches o This was due to the food surplus o Elaborately carved totem poles, masks, and other wooden items are now some of the world’s most unique art • North America’s indigenous peoples shared some broad traits o Spiritual practices, beliefs on property, kinship networks o Kinship was traced through the mother which gave women more power and influence and also the ability to choose their husbands/get a divorce European Expansion • Scandinavians reached the new world centuries before Columbus • Around year 1000 Leif Erikson reached New Foundland in present-‐day Canada o This colony failed due to bad weather, food shortages, and native resistance • Hundreds of years before Columbus the crusades linked Europe and Asia • The Hundreds Years War between England and France accelerated nationalism and cultivated the financial and military administration necessary to maintain nation-‐states • Seafaring Italian traders commanded the Mediterranean and controlled trade routes with Asia o Spain and Portugal relied on middle man and paid higher prices for Asian goods ▯ Wanted a more direct route so they looked to the Atlantic • In 15 century Portuguese sailors invented the astrolabe, a tool to calculate latitude and the caravel, a ship well suited for ocean exploration • Blending economic and religious motivations the Portuguese established forts th along the Atlantic coast of Africa during the 15 century • Sugar, grown in Asia, had become popular among nobility and wealthy in Europe o Portuguese began growing sugar along the Mediterranean ▯ Difficult crop o The Atlantic islands natives Guanches were enslaved to grow sugar but soon all perished ▯ So they got new workers from African kingdoms such as kongo • Slavery had long existed among African societies o Leaders traded war captives for Portuguese guns, iron and manufactured goods • Educated Asians and Europeans of the fifteenth century knew the world was round and too large to sale the whole way in a caravel o Columbus underestimated the size of the globe by a full 2/3 o Got lucky that after 2 months at sea the 90 men landed in modern-‐day Bahamas • Indigenous Arawaks populated the islands and were described as very gentle and innocent o However it was clear that Columbus just wanted gold crowns and slaves and therefore enslaved the 50 men • Columbus was outfitted with 17 ships and over 1,000 men to return to the west indies o There they tormented the natives, cutting off their body parts o By presuming the natives had no humanity, the Spaniards utterly abandoned theirs • Due to lack of immunity about 90% of the population of the Americas perished within the first century and a half of European contact Spanish Exploration and Conquest • Spanish managed labor relations through a legal system known as the encomienda o Spanish crown granted a person not only land but a specified number of natives as well • After Las Casas published his account of Spanish abuses they replaced encomienda with repartimiento o This replicated many of the abuses of the old system • When Spaniards arrived in Mexico they found Tenochtitlan (founded in 1325) and was large and grand o Massive pyramid temple, templo mayor, was in the center of the city o 70,000 buildings o 200,000-‐250,000 people • Aztecs dominated an enormous swath of central and southern Mesoamerica o People they ruled paid tribute in goods and people • Hernan Cortes, a Spaniard who had conquested Cuba, led an invasion of Mexico in 1519 o Relied on native translator Dona Marina (La Malinche) o He enlisted the aid of thousands of native allies who didn’t like the Aztecs • Through persuasion, and b/c some Aztecs thought Cortez was a god the Spaniards entered Tenochtitlan peacefully o Then captured emperor Montezuma and used him to gain control of gold and silver reserves • Montezuma and 1/3 of Cortes’ men were killed in an uprising called la noche triste “the night of sorrows” • Spaniards 85 day siege cut off food and water and smallpox ravaged the city • After 2 years of conflict a million-‐person empire was toppled • In the Andes Mnts of South America the Incas managed a vast mountain empire o Smallpox killed many including ruler which led to bloody war of succession o Francisco Pizarro took control of Incan empire by 1533 • There was a racial group social classification o Peninsulares: Iberian born Spaniards o Espanoles: occupied the highest levels and administration and acquired the greatest estates o Criollos: new world born Spaniards o Mestizos: a term used to describe a mix of Spanish and Indian heritage SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS Native American Creation Stories • Salinan Indian Creation Story o When the world was done the chief of animals, bald eagle molded man out of clay o Then pulled a feather and laid it beside sleeping man to make a mate o Eagle wanted them to procreate but the man and women didn’t know how so the eagle had the coyote teach them • Cherokee Creation Story o Earth is great island floating in a sea of water suspended at four cardinal points by a cord hanging from the sky vault ▯ Eventually earth will sink into the ocean and all will become water again o When everything was water the “Beaver’s Grandchild” and the water beetle explored to see what was below o At first the earth was very flat, soft, and wet o The Great Buzzard flew around looking for land and got tired when he reached Cherokee country so he began to flap his wings and strike the ground ▯ Where he struck there was a valley and where they turned up there was a mountain o However animals didn’t want all mountains so they called him back ▯ Yet there are still many mountains in Cherokee country o When the animals got the sun it scorched the Red Crawfish shell, so its meat was spoiled and the Cherokee do not eat it o There is another world under ours with many similarities but different seasons, and water is key to the underworld ▯ We know seasons are different b/c the water in springs is always warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the outer air o When animals were first created they were told to stay awake for seven nights ▯ However only the owl, panther, and a few others could so they were given the power to see in the dark ▯ Of the trees only cedar, pine, spruce, and holly were awake till the end so they are always green and greatest for medicine o At first there was only a brother and a sister until he struck her with a fish and told her to multiply ▯ Every seven days she had a child ▯ Now a woman can only have one child in a year cause they were multiplying too quickly Journal Of Christopher Columbus • Thursday, October 11 o People are very poor o People walk around naked o Never seen swords cause they grabbed them by the blade and cut themselves o Fought with people on adjacent islands o They will easily be made Christians for it seemed they had no religion o The travelers were fascinated by the Indians canoes o The Indians brought cotton, parrots, darts and other small things to trade o Want to find the king with the gold • Sunday, October 14 o Taking seven back to Europe to learn language and return o However if king wants complete control he should send 50 troops to the island • Sunday, November 4 o Europeans wanted to find cinnamon and nutmeg o Also wanted to find gold and silver o Were told about men who were cannibals and would behead enemies and drink their blood Bartolome de Las Casas describes the exploitation of indigenous peoples, 1542 • The Spaniards have killed off harmless populations of people • When Spaniards first arrived to the Gigantic Isles there were five hundred thousand men o Now about 30 people • Spaniards have depopulated 10 kingdoms greater than all Spain o Estimate above 12 million have undeservedly perished • All of this happened because the Spaniards wanted gold • Spaniards were never injured by the Indians Thomas Morton reflects on Indians in New England, 1637 • Fascinated by the Indians circular houses • They open their homes to anyone and feed whoever is in their house • Make clothes from animal skins • Women have shoes and stocking to wear • Infants are born white but are given a bath of walnut leaves, husks of walnuts, and such things to stain their skin forever • The younger are always obedient to the elder • Powahs are called when a person is sick • Barter with beads instead of money • Believe they contact the devil to know things before the English man o EX: when a ship is coming • Savages burn all land twice a year • Very good about sharing and fairness • Lead more meaningful lives because they are not delighted in baubles, but in useful things Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca travels through North America, 1542 • On the night they arrived Indians came to the healer complaining that their head felt sore o Healer made a cross over his head and recommended them to god and then their pain was gone o They brought back tuna and venison as thank you • They celebrated English man coming for 3 days • The healer also cured five people who were very ill • Tried to go cure a man but he got there and was already dead o So he prayed and left o Later the Indians came and said the man was rose from his bed • Remained with Avavares Indians for eight months
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