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HIST 111, Week 1 Notes

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by: Rachel Stein

HIST 111, Week 1 Notes History 111

Rachel Stein
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United States History to 1865
Nicole Maskiell
Class Notes




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Stein on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 111 at University of South Carolina taught by Nicole Maskiell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see United States History to 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 01/20/16
HIST  111:  US  History  to  1865   IN  CLASS  NOTES     1/12/16   • Early  History  of  the  North  American  Continent   o “Encounter  the  world  from  native  territory”     o Estimates  of  how  long  humans  have  been  on  the  continent  vary   ▯ Some  as  early  as  40,000  years  ago   ▯ People  migrated  from  Asia  via  the  bearing  straight  (between   Siberia  and  Alaska)     • Took  hundreds  or  even  thousands  of  years   • How  do  we  know  this?  Genetic,  linguistic  and  dental   evidence   o Native  American  people  believe  ancestors  have  always  been  here   o California   ▯ Coastal  regions  supported  large  groups  of  hunter/gatherers  who   cultivated  1  crop:  Tobacco     ▯ Harvested  an  abundance  of  natural  foods   • Acorns  were  part  of  the  diet   ▯ This  lifestyle  was  extremely  sophisticated     • Very  diverse  culture   ▯ Northwest  pacific  coast  they  were  harvesting  fish  and  other   marine  recourses  5000  years  ago   o Columbia  Plateau  (between  cascade  and  rocky  mountain)   ▯ Lived  on  fish,  particularly  salmon     ▯ Buffalo  hunting  on  the  plains     o Arizona,  New  Mexico  border  Mongolian  people  grew  corn  and  squash     ▯ More  traditional  crops     • Corn  first  cultivated  in  Mexico     ▯ Built  multi-­‐apartment  structures  above  ground   • Huge     ▯ People  were  drinking  chocolate   • Proves  trade  with  Mexico  for  over  1000  years     o Midwest-­‐East  Coast   ▯ System  of  agriculture  (sacred  3  sisters)   • Corn   o 8650  (Illinois)   • Beans   • Squash     o 5000  BC  (Illinois)     ▯ Mound  Builders     • Mounds  are  pyramids     • Watson  break  mound  (oldest  in  America)     • Poverty  point  in  Mississippi     o 1500  BC   o Crossroads  of  commerce  b/c  near  Mississippi  river     o Founding  of  Mississippi  culture     ▯ 700  BC   ▯ Cahokia  outside  of  St.  Louis   • Largest  settlement  north  of  Rio  Grande     o Until  surpassed  by  New  York     • Elite  rulers  controlled  the  distribution  of  food  and  were   buried  ceremoniously     • Monk’s  Mound     • Disappeared  due  to  floods  and  earthquake  in  13  century   • Growing  population  exhausted  natural  resources   • Growing  social  unrest  in  14  century   o Who  are  the  heirs  to  the  civilizations   ▯ Mississippi  =  Cherokee,  creeks,  ect.     ▯   1/14/16     Review   • “Facing  East  From  Indian  Country”   o Taking  the  encounters  of  the  people  of  America’s,  Africa,  and  Europe  and   looking  at  it  from  a  Native  American  perspective.     o This  allows  individuals  to  be  empathetic  towards  the  Native  Americans.     • Mississippi  Valley  Civilization     o Civilization  that  flourished  in  the  Mississippi  valley,  also  known  as  the   mound  builders.     o Opened  up  the  investigation  of  larger  civilizations  in  the  America’s     • “Sacred  Three  Sisters”   o They  are  corn,  beans,  and  squash.   o They  are  the  main  foods  produced  by  the  eastern  civilizations,  and  other   communities  throughout  the  country.     • Identify  picture  of  Cahokia   o Largest  civilization  in  America  north  of  the  Rio  Grande.   o Aztecs  were  the  largest.   o Demonstrated  the  wealth  and  power  of  early  civilizations   o Cahokia  founded  which  cultures:  Cherokee,  Choctaw,  Creeks,  Chickasaws,   ect     The  Non  American  World:  Pre  1492     • Citizens  had  already  formed  a  world  system     • Historians  labeled  places  as  central  or  periphery     • Center  of  native  North  America     o South  west  and  Mississippi  valley     • Indian  Subcontinent  and  the  societies  in  Mongolia  was  center  at  the  time   o This  is  b/c  Europe  was  isolated  from  the  trade  route  so  were  periphery   • 1250-­‐1350  the  empire  of  Genghis  Khan  allowed  Europe  to  become  part  of  trade   route  again     • Land  travel  was  more  expensive  yet  preferred  because  safer   o More  sanitary  than  sea  travel  (scurvy)   • Carolingian  Renaissance:  when  Europe  opens  up  to  trade  since  fall  of  Rome     o By  1492  the  Mongolian  empire  falls  apart  so  policing  power  is  gone     o The  fall  of  Constantinople  (last  vestiges  of  Roman  Empire)  falls  to  the   ottoman  empire  in  1453     ▯ Therefore  Europe  was  preoccupied     • North  Africa  had  been  in  contact  with  Europe  since  ancient  times   • Africa  connects  to  the  world  from  the  East  Coast     o Lots  of  trade  between  Asia  and  Africa  (instead  of  Europe)   o Gold  trade  comes  from  Africa  in  the  west  sub-­‐Saharan  desert  (modern   country  of  Ghana)     • Europe  had  a  very  complex  trading  structure   o Banking  was  invented  in  this  time  period  to  find  a  solution  to  trading   goods  across  far  systems   ▯ Came  up  with  a  system  of  credit     • It  was  possible  to  trade  from  Constantinople  and  avoid  the  ottoman  empire     o This  propped  up  the  very  lucrative  slave  trade   • Jenowa  was  key  city  in  slave  trade   o Must  get  to  black  sea  to  trade     o Established  a  fort  called  Jaffa  on  black  sea  coast  (modern  day  eastern   Europe)   ▯ Trade  from  Jaffa  to  Cairo   • Slaves  needed  for  military  role     o Mongol  people     • Also  got  slaves  from  sub-­‐Saharan  Africa     • Metteci  family  lived  in  city  states   • During  crusades  Europeans  encountered  sugar  and  really  liked  it     • After  black  death  in  mid  1300s  there  was  a  labor  shortage   o Killed  1/3  of  Europe’s  population     o Mostly  enslaved  from  the  Balkans   ▯ European  Slave  Coast     • Slavery  came  in  all  colors  and  was  focused  on  Urban  centers     • Catholic  church  officially  disapproved  of  Christians  being  sold  to  Muslims     o No  issue  with  Christians  owning  Christians,  just  didn’t  want  conversion     • You  see  Christian  intellectuals  set  out  to  learn  Arabic     • 1293  the  Quran  was  translated  to  English     • When  Columbus  is  reaching  the  Americas  they  are  doing  so  in  rivalry  of  the   Ottoman  Empire     • 1492  had  political  and  religious  rivalry       The  Columbian  Encounter     • The  Columbian  Encounter/Exchange  (Ecological  Imperialism):  Columbus’  4   voyages  beginning  in  1492   o Subsequent  interconnections  between  Africa,  Asia,  Americas,  Europe     • Plant  animal  and  diseases  were  cut  off  from  America’s  due  to  isolation   • Residents  of  the  western  hemisphere  were  shocked  by  discovery  of  Americas     • Atlantic  Ocean  had  many  names  Ethiopian  Sea  and  other  things   o Middle  of  18  century  was  when  the  term  Atlantic  started  being  used     • Before  arrival  of  Spanish  there  were  no  sheep  in  Americas   • Before  European  travels  there  was  no  tobacco,  tomatoes,  and  corn  in  Europe     • Should  it  be  celebrated?  Brought  new  cultures  and  goods     Disease   • Disease  shaped  the  landscape  of  America  more  than  conquest     • ½  million  people  lived  on  Hispaniola  when  explorers  arrived   o 50  years  later  only  2000  inhabitants   • 1540s  exploration  of  south  Carolina  found  that  smallpox  had  devastated  native   population     • Many  diseases  killed  inhabitants  on  the  coast  north  of  Cape  Cod     • 1500s  was  the  beginning  of  when  we  see  Syphilis   o Carried  by  sailors,  prostitutes,  soldiers       • Viral  hepatitis  and  measles  were  also  an  issue   • Big  killer  of  the  day  was  Smallpox     o Spread  primarily  through  human  contact     • Smallpox  is  a  viral  infection  which  enters  the  body  through  mouth  and  throat,   goes  to  lungs  and  then  into  the  lymphatic  system   • Large  pustules  then  begin  to  form  o  hands  and  face  and  then  spreads  throughout   the  body   o Pustules  are  filled  with  smallpox  and  when  punctures  spreads  smallpox   o Incubation  period  is  12  days  which  means  people  would  infect  each  other   without  knowing  they  had  it   • Reached  America  by  infected  African  Slave  on  a  Spanish  ship     • Because  thousands  of  years  farming  in  Europe  many  people  were  spared  with   immunity   o However  terrible  childhood  disease,  80%  of  deaths  were  under  2  years   old     • Americas  had  no  domesticated  animals  which  led  to  virgin  soil  epidemic       FROM  THE  BOOK   Chapter  1:  The  New  World   Intro   • Humans  have  lived  on  the  Americas  for  over  10  millennia     The  First  Americans   • Last  ice  age  trapped  worlds  water  in  huge  glaciers   • With  water  trapped  there  was  a  land  bridge  between  Asia  and  North  America   across  the  Bering  strait   o First  Americans  migrated  between  12  and  20  thousand  years  ago   • Hunter-­‐gatherers  followed  megafauna  (bison  and  horses)  into  the  frozen  edge  of   north  America     • By  11,000  years  ago  migrating  peoples  reached  the  tip  of  south  America     o Hunting  boomed     • Native  populations  soon  became  hunters  and  gatherers  and  moved  across  north   America     o Rich  and  diverse  diets  fueled  massive  population  growth  across  the   continent     • Between  2  and  18  million  people  lived  north  of  Mexico  before  the  arrival  of   Europeans     • Agriculture  arose  sometime  between  9  and  5  thousand  years  ago     o First  domesticated  corn   • In  river  valleys  between  Mississippi  river  and  Atlantic  ocean  3  crops  flourished     o Corn   o Beans   o Squash   • Different  areas  had  different  cultivation  methods     • Agriculture  lead  to  a  decline  in  health  but  had  many  important  benefits     o Farmers  produced  more  food  than  hunters  allowing  some  members  of   the  community  to  gain  other  skills   ▯ Ex:  religious  leader,  soldier,  artists   • Social  Stratification  was  partly  preserved  through  frequent  warfare     o War  captives  could  be  enslaved  and  played  an  important  role  in  the   economy     o Slavery  was  considered  lack  of  kinship  not  property  and  therefore  slavery   would  be  ended  by  adoption  or  marriage     • Missippians  developed  the  largest  and  most  advanced  native  civilization  north  of   modern  day  Mexico   o Cahokia  peaked  at  10-­‐30  thousand  people     o Around  the  year  1050  Cahokia  experienced  the  “Big  bang”  and  saw  a   500%  increase  in  population  in  only  one  generation     o Cahokia  was  around  2,000  acres  spanning  from  the  Great  Lakes  to  the   American  Southeast     o Religious  ceremonies  were  performed  atop  “mounds”     ▯ Monks  Mound  was  the  largest  and  was  10  stories  tall     o By  1300  the  powerful  city  of  Cahokia  had  collapsed   • Between  900  and  1300  ancient  Puebloan  people  built  a  civilization  sustained  by   irrigation  and  a  vast  trading  network     o 15,000  people  lived  in  Chaco  Canyon  Complex  (modern  day  new  Mexico)   o Pueblo  Bonitio,  one  building,  was  over  two  acres  wide  and  5  stories  tall   ▯ No  bigger  building  in  Americas  till  late  19  century     o Decline  likely  droughts,  overpopulation  and  soil  exhaustion     • In  Pacific  Northwest  social  status  was  achieved  through  giving  elaborate  feasts   called  potlaches     o This  was  due  to  the  food  surplus     o Elaborately  carved  totem  poles,  masks,  and  other  wooden  items  are  now   some  of  the  world’s  most  unique  art     • North  America’s  indigenous  peoples  shared  some  broad  traits   o Spiritual  practices,  beliefs  on  property,  kinship  networks     o Kinship  was  traced  through  the  mother  which  gave  women  more  power   and  influence  and  also  the  ability  to  choose  their  husbands/get  a  divorce   European  Expansion     • Scandinavians  reached  the  new  world  centuries  before  Columbus     • Around  year  1000  Leif  Erikson  reached  New  Foundland  in  present-­‐day  Canada     o This  colony  failed  due  to  bad  weather,  food  shortages,  and  native   resistance     • Hundreds  of  years  before  Columbus  the  crusades  linked  Europe  and  Asia     • The  Hundreds  Years  War  between  England  and  France  accelerated  nationalism   and  cultivated  the  financial  and  military  administration  necessary  to  maintain   nation-­‐states     • Seafaring  Italian  traders  commanded  the  Mediterranean  and  controlled  trade   routes  with  Asia     o Spain  and  Portugal  relied  on  middle  man  and  paid  higher  prices  for  Asian   goods     ▯ Wanted  a  more  direct  route  so  they  looked  to  the  Atlantic     • In  15  century  Portuguese  sailors  invented  the  astrolabe,  a  tool  to  calculate   latitude  and  the  caravel,  a  ship  well  suited  for  ocean  exploration     • Blending  economic  and  religious  motivations  the  Portuguese  established  forts   th along  the  Atlantic  coast  of  Africa  during  the  15  century     • Sugar,  grown  in  Asia,  had  become  popular  among  nobility  and  wealthy  in  Europe     o Portuguese  began  growing  sugar  along  the  Mediterranean     ▯ Difficult  crop   o The  Atlantic  islands  natives  Guanches  were  enslaved  to  grow  sugar  but   soon  all  perished     ▯ So  they  got  new  workers  from  African  kingdoms  such  as  kongo   • Slavery  had  long  existed  among  African  societies     o Leaders  traded  war  captives  for  Portuguese  guns,  iron  and  manufactured   goods   • Educated  Asians  and  Europeans  of  the  fifteenth  century  knew  the  world  was   round  and  too  large  to  sale  the  whole  way  in  a  caravel   o Columbus  underestimated  the  size  of  the  globe  by  a  full  2/3     o Got  lucky  that  after  2  months  at  sea  the  90  men  landed  in  modern-­‐day   Bahamas     • Indigenous  Arawaks  populated  the  islands  and  were  described  as  very  gentle   and  innocent     o However  it  was  clear  that  Columbus  just  wanted  gold  crowns  and  slaves   and  therefore  enslaved  the  50  men   • Columbus  was  outfitted  with  17  ships  and  over  1,000  men  to  return  to  the  west   indies     o There  they  tormented  the  natives,  cutting  off  their  body  parts   o By  presuming  the  natives  had  no  humanity,  the  Spaniards  utterly   abandoned  theirs     • Due  to  lack  of  immunity  about  90%  of  the  population  of  the  Americas  perished   within  the  first  century  and  a  half  of  European  contact     Spanish  Exploration  and  Conquest     • Spanish  managed  labor  relations  through  a  legal  system  known  as  the   encomienda   o Spanish  crown  granted  a  person  not  only  land  but  a  specified  number  of   natives  as  well   • After  Las  Casas  published  his  account  of  Spanish  abuses  they  replaced   encomienda    with  repartimiento   o This  replicated  many  of  the  abuses  of  the  old  system   • When  Spaniards  arrived  in  Mexico  they  found  Tenochtitlan  (founded  in  1325)   and  was  large  and  grand     o Massive  pyramid  temple,  templo  mayor,  was  in  the  center  of  the  city   o 70,000  buildings   o 200,000-­‐250,000  people     • Aztecs  dominated  an  enormous  swath  of  central  and  southern  Mesoamerica     o People  they  ruled  paid  tribute  in  goods  and  people   • Hernan  Cortes,  a  Spaniard  who  had  conquested  Cuba,  led  an  invasion  of  Mexico   in  1519   o Relied  on  native  translator  Dona  Marina  (La  Malinche)   o He  enlisted  the  aid  of  thousands  of  native  allies  who  didn’t  like  the  Aztecs     • Through  persuasion,  and  b/c  some  Aztecs  thought  Cortez  was  a  god  the   Spaniards  entered  Tenochtitlan  peacefully     o Then  captured  emperor  Montezuma  and  used  him  to  gain  control  of  gold   and  silver  reserves     • Montezuma  and  1/3  of  Cortes’  men  were  killed  in  an  uprising  called  la  noche   triste  “the  night  of  sorrows”   • Spaniards  85  day  siege  cut  off  food  and  water  and  smallpox  ravaged  the  city   • After  2  years  of  conflict  a  million-­‐person  empire  was  toppled     • In  the  Andes  Mnts  of  South  America  the  Incas  managed  a  vast  mountain  empire     o Smallpox  killed  many  including  ruler  which  led  to  bloody  war  of   succession     o Francisco  Pizarro  took  control  of  Incan  empire  by  1533   • There  was  a  racial  group  social  classification     o Peninsulares:  Iberian  born  Spaniards   o Espanoles:  occupied  the  highest  levels  and  administration  and  acquired   the  greatest  estates   o Criollos:  new  world  born  Spaniards     o Mestizos:  a  term  used  to  describe  a  mix  of  Spanish  and  Indian  heritage       SUPPLEMENTAL    READINGS   Native  American  Creation  Stories   • Salinan  Indian  Creation  Story   o When  the  world  was  done  the  chief  of  animals,  bald  eagle  molded  man   out  of  clay   o Then  pulled  a  feather  and  laid  it  beside  sleeping  man  to  make  a  mate   o Eagle  wanted  them  to  procreate  but  the  man  and  women  didn’t  know   how  so  the  eagle  had  the  coyote  teach  them     • Cherokee  Creation  Story   o Earth  is  great  island  floating  in  a  sea  of  water  suspended  at  four  cardinal   points  by  a  cord  hanging  from  the  sky  vault   ▯ Eventually  earth  will  sink  into  the  ocean  and  all  will  become  water   again   o When  everything  was  water  the  “Beaver’s  Grandchild”  and  the  water   beetle  explored  to  see  what  was  below     o At  first  the  earth  was  very  flat,  soft,  and  wet     o The  Great  Buzzard  flew  around  looking  for  land  and  got  tired  when  he   reached  Cherokee  country  so  he  began  to  flap  his  wings  and  strike  the   ground   ▯ Where  he  struck  there  was  a  valley  and  where  they  turned  up   there  was  a  mountain     o However  animals  didn’t  want  all  mountains  so  they  called  him  back   ▯ Yet  there  are  still  many  mountains  in  Cherokee  country     o When  the  animals  got  the  sun  it  scorched  the  Red  Crawfish  shell,  so  its   meat  was  spoiled  and  the  Cherokee  do  not  eat  it     o There  is  another  world  under  ours  with  many  similarities  but  different   seasons,  and  water  is  key  to  the  underworld   ▯ We  know  seasons  are  different  b/c  the  water  in  springs  is  always   warmer  in  winter  and  cooler  in  summer  than  the  outer  air     o When  animals  were  first  created  they  were  told  to  stay  awake  for  seven   nights   ▯ However  only  the  owl,  panther,  and  a  few  others  could  so  they   were  given  the  power  to  see  in  the  dark   ▯ Of  the  trees  only  cedar,  pine,  spruce,  and  holly  were  awake  till  the   end  so  they  are  always  green  and  greatest  for  medicine     o At  first  there  was  only  a  brother  and  a  sister  until  he  struck  her  with  a   fish  and  told  her  to  multiply     ▯ Every  seven  days  she  had  a  child     ▯ Now  a  woman  can  only  have  one  child  in  a  year  cause  they  were   multiplying  too  quickly     Journal  Of  Christopher  Columbus     • Thursday,  October  11     o People  are  very  poor   o People  walk  around  naked     o Never  seen  swords  cause  they  grabbed  them  by  the  blade  and  cut   themselves     o Fought  with  people  on  adjacent  islands     o They  will  easily  be  made  Christians  for  it  seemed  they  had  no  religion     o The  travelers  were  fascinated  by  the  Indians  canoes   o The  Indians  brought  cotton,  parrots,  darts  and  other  small  things  to  trade     o Want  to  find  the  king  with  the  gold   • Sunday,  October  14   o Taking  seven  back  to  Europe  to  learn  language  and  return     o However  if  king  wants  complete  control  he  should  send  50  troops  to  the   island     • Sunday,  November  4   o Europeans  wanted  to  find  cinnamon  and  nutmeg   o Also  wanted  to  find  gold  and  silver   o Were  told  about  men  who  were  cannibals  and  would  behead  enemies  and   drink  their  blood     Bartolome  de  Las  Casas  describes  the  exploitation  of  indigenous  peoples,  1542   • The  Spaniards  have  killed  off  harmless  populations  of  people     • When  Spaniards  first  arrived  to  the  Gigantic  Isles  there  were  five  hundred   thousand  men   o Now  about  30  people   • Spaniards  have  depopulated  10  kingdoms  greater  than  all  Spain     o Estimate  above  12  million  have  undeservedly  perished   • All  of  this  happened  because  the  Spaniards  wanted  gold       • Spaniards  were  never  injured  by  the  Indians     Thomas  Morton  reflects  on  Indians  in  New  England,  1637   • Fascinated  by  the  Indians  circular  houses     • They  open  their  homes  to  anyone  and  feed  whoever  is  in  their  house     • Make  clothes  from  animal  skins   • Women  have  shoes  and  stocking  to  wear     • Infants  are  born  white  but  are  given  a  bath  of  walnut  leaves,  husks  of  walnuts,   and  such  things  to  stain  their  skin  forever     • The  younger  are  always  obedient  to  the  elder     • Powahs  are  called  when  a  person  is  sick   • Barter  with  beads  instead  of  money   • Believe  they  contact  the  devil  to  know  things  before  the  English  man   o EX:  when  a  ship  is  coming   • Savages  burn  all  land  twice  a  year     • Very  good  about  sharing  and  fairness   • Lead  more  meaningful  lives  because  they  are  not  delighted  in  baubles,  but  in   useful  things     Alvar  Nunez  Cabeza  de  Vaca  travels  through  North  America,  1542   • On  the  night  they  arrived  Indians  came  to  the  healer  complaining  that  their  head   felt  sore     o Healer  made  a  cross  over  his  head  and  recommended  them  to  god  and   then  their  pain  was  gone   o They  brought  back  tuna  and  venison  as  thank  you   • They  celebrated  English  man  coming  for  3  days     • The  healer  also  cured  five  people  who  were  very  ill   • Tried  to  go  cure  a  man  but  he  got  there  and  was  already  dead   o So  he  prayed  and  left   o Later  the  Indians  came  and  said  the  man  was  rose  from  his  bed     • Remained  with  Avavares  Indians  for  eight  months      


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