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Biol 3302 week 2 lecture notes

by: Nicholas Woodall

Biol 3302 week 2 lecture notes BIOL 3302

Marketplace > Idaho State University > Biological Sciences > BIOL 3302 > Biol 3302 week 2 lecture notes
Nicholas Woodall
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These notes cover a continuation of the endocrine system covered in the lecture.
Anatomy and Physiology
Class Notes
anatomy and physiology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Woodall on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3302 at Idaho State University taught by Frank in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at Idaho State University.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Week 2 (1/18 - 1/22) Biol 3302-03 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 16: The Endocrine System Anterior Pituitary: 6 main hormones 1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) a. Stimulus: By TRH b. Target: Thyroid c. Role: Triggers release of3???? 4???? 2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a. Stimulus: CRH b. Target: Adrenal cortex Tropic Hormones c. Role: Release cortisol 3. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) a. Stimulus: GnRH b. Target: Ovaries and testis glands c. Role: Egg and sperm production 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) a. Stimulus: GnRH b. Target: Ovaries and testis glands c. Role: Estrogen/ progesterone/ and testosterone production 5. Prolactin a. Stimulus: Decreased PIH b. Target: Mammary gland c. Role: Make/store milk 6. Growth Hormone (GH) a. Stimulus: GHRH b. Target: Most tissues in the body i. Ex: bone epiphyseal plate c. Role: To promote growth of tissues i. Ex: skeletal muscle are told to grow bigger ii. Ex: Other tissues 1. Regulate metabolism 2. Make proteins 3. Break down fat for energy 4. Save glucose for the brain d. Control of GH release: i. Ultimately controlled by the hypothalamus, when it secretes GHRH 1. This is a negative feedback system: a. Increased levels of GH stimulate for a decrease in secretion of GH Week 2 (1/18 - 1/22) ii. Sleep 1. 90 minutes prior to waking, an increase of GH is secreted. Hence why people tell you that you grow more in your sleep. iii. Blood sugar 1. Low blood sugar means that the body is using that glucose, which is what the brain needs, so in order to keep that glucose from being used up, GH is secreted. e. Possible diseases i. During childhood 1. Low GH levels causes pituitary dwarfism 2. High GH levels gigantism ii. During adulthood (after ossification of bone plates) 1. High GH causes acromegaly (excessive tissue growth) Thyroid gland 1. Releases a. ???? 3Triiodothyronine) From follicular cells; produced by a large protein called thyroglobulin b. ???? 4Thyroxine) i. ???? has 3 ???? molecules, while ???? has 4, bound to tyrosines (part of 3 4 ????ℎ thyroglobulin molecule) [illustrated by pg. 613 in HA&P 10 ed.] ii. Produced ???? 3???? 4s released into blood in bound form. (because it’s hydrophobic) iii. Target: Most tissues in body iv. Role: Increase metabolic rate, heat production, and promotes normal growth. v. Possible diseases: 1. Simple goiter: enlarged thyroid a. Caused by a lack of iodine in diet (production of ????3/????4is stopped). b. Without any production of ???? /???? hormones, their 3 4 feedback to stop production of TSH is absent, which means that the TSH hormone builds up and enlargement of the thyroid follows. 2. Cretinism: Short, stocky person with possible retardation. a. Caused by failure of thyroid development » decrease in ????3/????4» permissive effects on hormones, such as GH » abnormal growth throughout body. 3. Graves’ disease: autoimmune production of an abnormal antibody that mimics TSH. a. Abnormal antibody stimulates thyroid to produce high levels of ???? /???? which causes abnormal growth 3 4 of tissues. Week 2 (1/18 - 1/22) 4. Question: now that you are aware of what happens to the body from an overactive thyroid, what happens when the thyroid is underactive? a. Answer: Weight gain, depression, opposite effects of overactive thyroid. vi. Question: Where would the cellular receptor be located for ???? 3???? 4 and what would this mean? 1. Answer: It would be an intracellular (inside cell) receptor, which means they change genetic expression, and that they have a longer half-life. c. Calcitonin – from parafollicular cells 2+ i. Stimulus: High levels of ???????? in blood ii. Target: bone tissue iii. Role: build bone which lowers ???????? 2+ levels 2+ iv. Fun fact: Excessive levels of ???????? causes lethargy, while too little causes excitation. Parathyroid glands 4 nodes located on the dorsal side of the thyroid glans 1. Release: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) a. Stimulus: Low blood ???????? 2+ levels b. Target: Bones c. Role: Break down bone to increase ???????? 2+ levels in blood d. Possible disease: None named i. Ultimately without PTH life could not exist because PTH increases ????????2+ levels, which is necessary as low levels causes excessive excitability, which leads to tetany (overstimulation of muscles) which can lead to death (depending on which muscle if effected, for example; the diaphragm). 2. Vitamin D 2+ a. Role: Increase ???????? absorption from food Adrenal glands Anatomy: Found on top of the kidneys 1. Medulla: Secrete epinephrine a. Epinephrine: adrenaline i. Role: 1. Increase heart rate 2. Vaso constriction 3. Increase blood pressure 4. Bronchial dilation Week 2 (1/18 - 1/22) ii. Trigger: 1. Sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) d. Cortex: i. Zona glomerulosa 1. Aldosterone ii. Zona fasciculate 1. Cortisol iii. Zona reticularis 1. Androgens


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