Pre-History and invention of the Cinema
Pre-History and invention of the Cinema Film 2700
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jian Clarke on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Film 2700 at Georgia State University taught by Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see HISTORY OF MOTION PICTURES in Film at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/20/16
History of Motion Pictures Pre-History and Invention of the Cinema I. The Magic Lantern a. Popularity helped developed essential technology for film projection; the electric arc lamp and eventually the incandescent bulb b. The shows were meant to be educational at the time, so it was combined with a lecture, music, and sound effects with images to illustrate and demonstrate a particular topic. II. Spiritualism and Magic Lanterns a. Johan Schroprer used magic lanterns to trick viewers into thinking that spirits of the dead were in the room which made the shows a big hit and lured a lot of families to want to take pictures of them with their dead loved ones. b. Etienne-Gaspard Robert staged “Phantasmagoria” which meant big spectical shows in huge theater spaces throughout the late 1700s and early 1800s c. Photography played a large part in the rise of spiritualism, “spirit photographs” III. Photography a. “daguerrotypes” (early photographs) were on metal plates b. In 1838 Louis Daguerre takes first photograph of a human being c. In 1885, George Eastman introduces the first flexible roll of photographic film d. In 1889, the first transparent film roll was created IV. Color Photography a. Color photography existed since the 1840s b. The first color photograph using an additive three-color process was taken in 1861 th c. It was rare in the 19 century due to limited capabilities of the chemical processes and expenses d. Hand-tinting or hand coloring was common and was used to color early motion pictures V. Motion Studies a. Muybridge i. Professional photographer from the United Kingdom ii. Famous for his photographs of Yosemite iii. Hired in 1872 by CA governor Stanford to settle a debate about a horse’s gallop iv. Devised a complex setup of 12 cameras along a track, taking pictures as the horse ran past them b. Marey i. Interested in motion pictures so he could study the movements of wildlife ii. Developed first repeatable camera in 1882 which was shaped like a gun and had chronophotographic pictures with up to 12 sequential photographs on same surface which lead to development of repeatable photography on multiple surfaces VI. A Trick of the Eye a. Phi phenomenon- perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession b. Beta movement- a series of static images on a screen are perceived as moving themselves VII. Thomas Edison a. In 1891, the kinetoscope was debuted b. He developed by WKL Dickson at Edison’s Lab c. Kinetoscope was the single viewing machine i. Pay-per-view ii. Very short film iii. In arcades d. Edison sold machines to business owners, but not his camera; he supplied them with film shots in his studio, The Black Maria VIII. Lumiere Brothers a. In France, they developed a motion picture camera and playback system b. “Cinematograph” allowed filming, development, and projection c. They traveled around France, shooting films in small towns, and charging residents to see those films at a show d. They sold the cinematograph e. They were in the camera business and the motion picture business f. They produced “death photographs” of relatives were popular and earned the brothers a lot of profit g. In 1895 at the first Pard exhibition in Atlanta, the two brothers lost to Charles Jenkins and Armat in the Cotton State exhibition