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Ch 1 Main Themes in Microbiology Notes

by: Aleethia Robertson

Ch 1 Main Themes in Microbiology Notes BIOL 103

Marketplace > Old Dominion University > BIOL 103 > Ch 1 Main Themes in Microbiology Notes
Aleethia Robertson
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Goes over Chapter 1
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aleethia Robertson on Wednesday January 20, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 103 at Old Dominion University taught by SHANNON M MCCALLISTER in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.

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Date Created: 01/20/16
Ch.1 What is All life is made up of 1+ cellsobiology? - Micro = small - Biology = the study of life - Microbiology = the study of microorganisms - Microorganism = Living organism that is too small to be seen w/ the naked eye  Microbes, bugs, germs The Scope of Microbiology Encompasses ALL types and aspects of microbes - Types of Microorganisms Cell structure, function, growth  Archaea and physiology, genetics,  Bacteria taxonomy, evolutionary  Protists history, and interactions with both living & non-living things  Algae  Protozoa  Fungi  Yeasts  Molds  Helminths  Viruses  Prions - Branches of Microbiology  Agricultural Microbiology  Biotechnology  Food Microbiology  Genetic Engineering  Immunology  Geomicrobiology  Public Health & Epidemiology  Marine Microbiology  Astromicrobiology Why is Microbiology Relevant to our Everyday Life? 1. They are our ancestry  Microbes first appeared about 3.5 billion years ago  They were the only life forms on Earth for over 1.5 billion years until a new, more complex single celled organism arose  Prokaryotes  Eukaryotes  Microbes have endured, adapted & triumphed over many catastrophic events  It is likely that they will live on even in the absence of human life 2. Microbes Impact the Environment  Microorganisms are EVERYWHERE (in lecture called “ ubiquitous”)  Large numbers Live in places many other organisms cannot. More than 50% of all organisms live in the soil  Impact Earth’s terrain & various ecosystems  Photosynthesis  Decomposition Microbial photosynthesis account for 70% of all photosynthesis on earth Most of the atmospheric oxygen on Earth Contribute to atmospheric gases which helps regulate earth’s temperature Microbes are essential for 3. Biotechnology decomposition of dead - Biotechnology = Use of organisms m/o’s or their products to Break down dead improve human life matter and waste into simple  Food compounds that get re-used  Mining by other living things  Cleaning Products Many biologically  Drug Therapy important elements (S, N, P) - Genetic Engineering = are cycled by microbes manipulating living organisms to create new products  Changing or altering genetic material via recombinant DNA technology  You can cut & paste genetic info from one organism to another  Products can be mass produced  Bacteria & Fungi  antibiotics  Yeasts  human insulin - Bioremediation = Introduction of microbes into the environment to restore stability or to clean up toxic pollutants  Many kinds of microbes working together  Oil spills heavy metals, pesticides, landfills 4. Microbial Diseases - Only a small % of microbes = infectious disease - Some actually improve the quality of life - Pathogen  2,000 known pathogens Emerging Diseases - Increasing number  SARS, Swine Flu, MERS - Other diseases previously not liked to m/o’s  Gastric ulcers, Cancers, Physiological disorders - Increasing number of drug resistant strains  MRSA, VRSA, MRTB - On the bright side….working towards eradication  Measles & Polio General Characteristics of Microorganisms Euokaryotess • Baciria • Pchaesa • HelminthsProtozoa Viruses & Prions Prokaryotes - No organelles - 10x smaller - Unicellular - Cell walls (all) - ALL prokaryotes are microorganisms Eukaryotes - Organelles 10x larger - Uni/Multicellular - Cell walls(some) - NOT all eukaryotes are microorganisms Viruses - Acellular - Obligate intracellular parasites  Cannot live independently – need a host - Much simpler than a cell  Only consist of genetic material & protein - About 5,000 viruses have been described in detail. Large variety - Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth - The most abundant type of biological entity Microbiology = the study of living organisms that are too small to be seen w/ the naked eye Characteristics of Living Organisms - Metabolism – enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions Bacteria – Yes Virus – No - Reproduction – progeny formed sexually or asexually Bacteria – Yes Virus – ? - Differentiation – different cell types can occur Bacteria – Yes Virus – No - Communication – signaling within and between cells Bacteria – Yes Virus – No - Locomotion – relative movement of cell or organism Bacteria – Yes Virus – No - Evolution – genetic change over time Bacteria – Yes Virus – Yes How small is “small”? = 1mm – 1nm Study “size of microbes” slide (35). Don’t need to know exact sizes but need to know order (smallest – largest) Naming, Classifying, & Identifying Microorganisms - Taxonomy = classification of life - Progressively smaller groups - Based on similarities & evolutionary relationships - Each organism is assigned to categories & given a scientific name so that everyone can identify it Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genu s S Domain = broadest group Species = most specific Nomenclature - Binomial System of Nomenclature  Consists of 2 names  Genus & species  Rules: 1. Genus name is always Capitalized 2. Species name is never capatlized 3. Both are written in italics or underlined  Ex. Staphylococcus aureus 4. Abbreviations:  Ex S. aureus Origins of Classification - Evolution = underlying them of all biology  Similar features b/c they share a common ancestor  Phylogeny  the degree of relatedness b/t groups of living things  Phylogenetic tree Domain Bacteria - Most abundant organism - Structurally simple  Nucleoid – NOT membrane bound - Cell wall made of peptidoglycan - Some photosynthetic - Some are motile - Distinct shapes Domain Archaea - Resemble bacteria superficially (by looks) - Prokaryotes with Unique Biochemistry  Cell membrane, cell walls, etc. - May be closest relative of eukaryotes - Some are “extremophiles”  1 Kingdom Domain Eukarya - Contains eukaryotes (complex/organelles) - 4 Kingdoms - Some have chloroplasts/are photosynthetic - Larger than prokaryotes - Some are motile Membrane- Cell Wall Cell TypeNucleus bounded Membrane Typical Organelles Chemistry Chemistry Size Domain Peptidoglycan Bacteria Prokaryotic Absent Absent Fatty acids (if present)1-10um Domain Archaea Non fattyPseudopeptidoglyc1-10um ProkaryoticAbsent Absent acid lipids or protein Usually cellulose or chitin Domain Eukaryotic Present PresentFatty acidsif present) > 10um Common Eukarya ancestor History - Robert Hooke (1664) 1st microscope Coined the term “cell” - Anthony van Leeuwenhoek Leeuwenhoek was the first (1684) person to accurately describe living microbe - Used a simple microscope Fabric threads, rain, plaque st 1 to see “animalcules - Francesco Redi (1668)  Disproved spontaneous generation for maggots - Louis Jobolt (1710)  Argued that contamination came from outside of the container (dust) - Franz Schulze & Theodor Schwann (1836)  Treated incoming gas w/ heat or chemicals - Louis Pasteur (1864)  Used swan-necked flasks to disprove abiogenesis  Untreated air allowed in & out of flasks  No growth in undistributed flasks  Contacting the broth w/ the dust results in rapid microbial growth Development of the Scientific Method - Gradually developed through the 1600s - Important Terms  Hypothesis  Theory  Law - Difference b/t deductive & inductive reasoning Discovery of Pathogens - Louis Pater (1862)  Pasteurization of wine  Wine was “infected: with detrimental microbes Louis Pasteur was contacted by wine producers w/ a problem of the wine going sour. He thought it was “infected w/ detrimental microbes. He briefly heated the wine to kill these microbes Advent of pateurization  Germ Theory of Disease  If wine can be infected by microbes, people can too Development of Aseptic Technique (1867) - Ignatz Semmelweiss (1841) Forced hand washing by all Ignatz – Puerperal fever outbreak was severe in his hospital Observed a difference in incidence in clinical wards (patients of physicians had more cases than those of midwives - Forced hand washing by all w/ chlorinated lime solutions Joseph Lister (1867) He initiated the use aseptic techniques to surgery Endospores & Sterilization Discovered (1876) - John Tyndall  Described heat-resistant microbes  Tyndalization - Ferdinand Cohn - Described endospores in detail - Sterilization - Tyndall used discontinuous heating used to sterilize Invention of Vaccines (1879) - Smallpox vaccine variations have been around since 1000 CE - Edward Jenner was 1 to inoculate humans w/ cowpox virus to prevent smallpoxstirus infection (1796) - Louis Pasteur made 1 vaccine in the laboratory  Rabies (1879) Koch’s Postulates (1884) - Robert Koch (1884) Worked on anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera Finalized the Germ Theory Described several postulates for proving the etiological (causative) agent of disease…aka Robert Koch German microbiologist Contemporary of Pasteur Worked on anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera Used pure cultures (initiated the use of agar) Further developed the germ theory of disease Described several postulates for proving the etiological (causative) agent of disease (1884) Koch’s Postulates Discovery of Viruses (1892 & 1898) - Dimitri Ivanovsky described a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants - Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMS) By Martinus Beijernick (1898) Discovery of Antibiotics (1928) - Alexander Fleming  Cleaning up some old cultures that Staphylococcus, a bacteria that cause boils, sore throats and abscesses.  He noticed one dish contained bacterial growth except where a blob of fuzzy mold was growing. It was clear (no bacterial growth) around mold. Restriction Enzymes (1970s) - Nathans, Arber, & Hamilton “Scissors” that cut DNA in bacteria Incredibly useful tool for genetic engineering & biotechnology Allow us to “cut & paste” genetic information Polymerase Chain Reaction(PCR) – (1980s) - Kary Mullis Means of copying DNA Incredibly useful tool for advances in diagnostic, research, genetic engineering, biotechnology, etc. Biofilms (1980s) - Biofilm = several species of microorganisms & several layers thick - Important in infectious disease  Ex – Plaque on Teeth


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